MELS223 Lecture 3

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Medical Laboratory Science
Jenny Rhodes

MELS223 PANDEMICS Lec 3 7/17/2013 4:01:00 PM Lecture objectives:
To define the terms endemic, sporadic, epidemic, pandemic and re-emerging. To discuss the lessons learned from studying three of the great pandemics. To outline the role of the WHO in infectious disease surveillance. Readings:
Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 13th ed. syphilis pp. 996– 997; plague pp. 1024–1025; influenza pandemics 987–988. (12th ed. syphilis 871-873; plague 899; influenza 862-864.) Endemic = infection is always present in the community Sporadic = Occasional cases of infection (no common source) Epidemic= Sudden increase in incidence of an infection locally Example : influenza. Can fall into all 3 of categories H1N1 swine flu epidemic 2009 Onset of winter – epidemic, locally within NZ Significant pandemics (global)  Bubonic plague  Syphilis  Cholera  Influenza  HIV Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection Treponema pallidum ss. Pallidum Primary stage: ulcer formation Secondary stage: rash, widespread multiplication in body T. pallidum can cross placenta – small microbe. 50% infants will die Tertiary stage ( 40%) : granulomatous lesions Stays dormant in the body if lucky Bone and cartilage gets destroyed – congenital syphilis. Flat nose Hutchinson‟s teeth Blindness, blisters. Very susceptible to antibiotics, never been resistant. Cured with penicillin Columbus in 1492 sailed to America. Dominican Republic: believed this is where sailors acquired syphilis Syphilitic Osseotype recognized in skeleton bones – evidence of syphilis. If we go to new country, will encounter new microbes. Take them back to
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