Lecture 6

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Medical Laboratory Science
Jenny Rhodes

MELS221 Lecture 6 7/29/2013 2:09:00 AM Antibiotics make surgery possible AIMS: To discuss mechanisms of antibiotic resistance and the selective pressures that promote resistance -To understand the nature of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and the importance of MRSA in NZ and world-wide -To discuss the importance of multi-drug resistance Animal husbandry in NZ  4 antibiotics used  Penicillins  most  Macrolides/lincosamides  Tetracyclines  Aminoglycosides Route of excretion of penicillin antibiotics  through kidneys In animal husbandry, urine into water waste. Antibiotic will end up there too.  Exerts a selective pressure, resistant bacteria will remain  Affects what grows and what doesn’t. Kills off susceptible organisms  No competition  thrives Macrolides: treat gram positive infections Lincosamide : new, treat multi-drug resistant strains Antibiotics have specific target Disinfectant no specific target Penicillin belongs to beta-lactam group. Target is peptidoglycan cell wall. Inhibit protein synthesis at level of ribosomes Folate metabolism inhibited. Bacteria make their own folate, we don’t. How do bacteria become resistant to antibiotics? 2 sorts of antibiotic resistance Innate Resistance: all members species/genus is resistant Acquired Resis
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