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Keith Ireton

PHCY219 – Microbiology Section 1 – Lecture 1 Judith Bateman Lecture 1 - Microbiology in our World First terms test will have two questions from each lecture It will cover lectures 1 - 15 It is worth 15% 30 MCQs in total to answer in 50 minutes Objectives 1. Describe the major microbiological discoveries in history Need to remember the year, the scientist and the discovery!!! 1664 - Robert Hook: Observation of mould under a crude microscope 1684 - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek: Observation of further detail 1822-1895 - Louis Pasteur: Pasteur Flask Dust and microbes can settle in the S-bend of the flask but the angle of the glass means that it can’t enter the body of the flask and contaminate the liquid in there. Note: Even though the flask was sterilised, dust and microbes were still able to settle in the S-bend of the flask (open top). By tipping the flask, the microbes were carried back into the body of the flask. In the presence of moisture, these microbes grew. The microbes that contaminated the sample came from the air. 1 | P a g e PHCY219 – Microbiology Section 1 – Lecture 1 Judith Bateman 2. Discuss ‘spontaneous generation’ This was a theory that perhaps life was generated spontaneously. This issue was addressed when Louis Pasteur. Evidence from the experiment pictured above DID NOT SUPPORT THE THEORY OF SPONTANEOUS GENERATION  Evidence --> theory of spontaneous generation not viable  Lead to pasteurisation 3. discuss Koch’s postulates 1843-1910 - Robert Koch - Koch's postulates How can disease spread between individuals? This question was addressed by Robert Koch. Four parts to know! Tuberculosis – killed many people in 1881 (around 1/7 deaths caused by TB). Animal model that was used was guinea pig. TB has a waxy coat so difficult for immune system to pick it up. Note: Not all organisms today can be grown in a plate. Jospeh Lister  Aspetic techniques, sterilisation of instruments and environment in surgery  better survival rates. Germ theory. 1918-1919 - Influenza epidemic killed 20 million people 4 processes that reduce infectious disease death 1. Chlorinated water 2. Pasteurised milk 3. Increased antibiotic use 2 | P a g e PHCY219 – Microbiology Section 1 – Lecture 1 Judith Bateman 4. Improved sewage 1928 - Fleming: Discovery of Penicillin (yellow excretion in the picture) Discovery was serendipitous. Many plates were cultured with different organisms however there was an incidence in particular where there was a no growth zone (bacteria couldn’t colonise in that area). It was due to fungi Penicillium notatum. Yellow excretion is anti-biotic. Organisms that produce antibiotics
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