Lecture 15. Sex Hormones.docx

8 Pages
79 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Pharmacology
Course
PHAL304
Professor
Cynthia Darlington
Semester
Spring

Description
Sex Hormones 9/4/2013 3:07:00 AM Hormones as drugs:  Difficult o Bioavailability, half-life and potency  Effects depend upon age and gender  Risks associated Complete failure to produce sex hormones is RARE, but when it happens:  Modulation of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is the optimal therapeutic strategy  Leaves the feedback mechanisms in a more “natural” state  ONLY successful if ovaries/testes are functional  Many GnRH agonists & antagonists o agonists: gonadorelin, nafarelin  Gonadorelin: o Effects deoend in method of administration:  pulsatile/continuous Fertility Drugs:  Clomiphene – Oestrogen receptor antagonist  Gonadotrophins – human recombinants LOOK UP  GnRH – synthetic, given in pulsatile fashion  Infertility: o Male:  LOW sperm count, immobile sperm, abnormal sperm  Administration of gonadotrophins may stimulate spermatogenesis and androgen release o Female:  Failure to ovulate, fallopian tube failure  Responsive to drug treatment  Clomiphene: o Oestrogen receptor antagonist  Oestrogen negatively feedbacks to decrease:  GnRH release from hypothalamus  FSH and LH release from anterior pituitary   results in INCREASED GnRH, FSH & LH o  Induces ovulation o Treats infertility due to anovulation o Twins or other multiple births common o Also used in males  Stimulates gonadotrophin release  Stimulates spermatogenesis   Gonadotrophins: o Chorionic gonadotrophin o Menotrophin  Urofollitrophin (LH removed) o Follitrophin  rhFSH o Uses:  Treats lack of ovulation in females  Treats low sperm count in males due to deficiency of GnRH  IVF In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)  3 hormones administered: o Buserelin  Nasal spray, daily from cycle day one  Suppresses ovulation o Follicle stimulating hormone  Injection every day until eggs are maturing, (around 10 days) o HGG (human chorionic gonadotrophin)  Single injection  Eggs are harvested 36 hours later  If successful: o At about 12 hours nuclei fuse, chromosomes exchange, cell division begins o Multiple births occur in 20-30% of pregnancies ERß Receptors:  Present on platelets and promote aggregation by increasing thrombin leading to increased risk of thrombosis ERα Receptors:  Cause reduction in formation of osteoclasts by inducing monocyte apoptosis  good for osteoporosis  Modulates the synthesis of plasma proteins  Required for GLUT4 expression in muscle cells  Mediate hepatic insulin sensitivity o Possible role in development of insulin resistance for both/either type of diabetes ERα and ERß:  Both involved in energy balance (mainly ERα)  CV, bone effects  Electrolyte balance / fluid homeostasis  Both present in the brain - may protect dopaminergic neurons Main Role of Estrogen (preparation for pregnancy):  Primes uterus for implantation of fertilized ovum  Stimulates uterine growth  Thickens vaginal mucosa  Thins cervical mucus production  Develops ducts in breasts Estrogen drugs: Natural Semi-synthetic Synthetic 17ß-oestradiol Ethinyloestradiol Mestranol (prodrug of (conjugated) (60x MORE POTENT ethinyloestradiol) than conjugated oestradiol) Estrogen effects:  Retention of salt & water: in pregnancy increased blood volume is need
More Less

Related notes for PHAL304

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit