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Lecture 7

Lecture 7.docx

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Daryl Schwenke

Design of the Vascular System: overview Objectives:  Gain a general overview of the organisation of the vascular system: distribution of blood volume, cross sectional area and flow velocity; pressure gradient and in series resistances  To understand the specific structure of various vessel types- which are dependent on function Role of the Circulatory System:  Provide oxygen and nutrients to every cell in the body  To remove carbon dioxide and waste products from every cell in the body.  Requires: A driving force: i.e. pump = heart Conduit system: vascular bed  Two ‘juxtaposed’ systems: Systemic circulation Pulmonary circulation Left ventricle  aorta  arteries  arterioles  capillaries  venules  veins  vena cava  right atrium and ventricle Right ventricle  pulmonary artery  arterioles  capillaries  venules  pulmonary vein  left atrium and ventricle Basic structure of vessels : Blood flow, pressure and resistance:  Blood flow (Q) = L/min NB: velocity = speed, independent of volume (e.g. cm/s)  Pressure (P) = mmHg Pressure gradient is driving the force of flow  Resistance ® is a measure of the ‘friction’ that impedes flow, and is calculated: Note: Q, P, R change along the vascular pathway Poiseuille Relationship: relates pressure, tube direction, viscosity to ‘blood flow’  For laminar flow in a rigid, cylindrical tube, flow is proportional to the pressure difference between each end of the tube. Q is proportional to the fourth power of the radius Q is proportional to the viscosity of the fluid In the circulation, vessel length and blood viscosity are unlikely to change over the short term. Both pressure and radius (vessel c
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