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PSYC203- Disorder as Abberant Cognition.docx

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Dione Healey

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PSYC203- Disorder as Abberant Cognition  Features of Depression -Affect -sadness, loneliness, emptiness, irritability -Motivation -loss of interest, yearning for escape, paralysis of the will -Cognition -negative self-concept, pessimism, guilt, negative interpretations of experience -Behaviour -reduced activity -Physical -retarded movement, fatigue, weight change, appetite, sleep, libido  DSM-5 Major Depressive Disorder -Symptoms: -depressed mood, most of the day, nearly every day -diminished interest or pleasure, most of the day, nearly every day -weight loss, weight gain; increased, decreased appetite -insomnia, hypersomnia -psychomotor agitation, retardation -fatigue, loss of energy -feelings of worthlessness; excessive, inappropriate guilt -diminished ability to think, concentrate; indecisiveness -recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal ideation; suicide attempt -distress, impairment -not drugs, not bereavement; not psychosis; not medical condition; not mania  Psychoanalytic Theory -Components of the psyche: id, ego, superego -Normal discharge of energy -Healthy mechanisms -Unconscious mechanisms -Pathologies -Ego anxieties (fixation) -Stress (regression)  Psychoanalytic account of Depression -Correspondence between grief and depression -depression as response to loss of a loved one (symbolic loss) -Introjection -integration of identities of self with loved (lost) one -direction of feelings (anger) onto self -low self-esteem, depressed mood, helplessness -Regression -to the oral stage of development (18-24 months) -dependence, new dependencies, to elicit support -Quality of parental support during childhood  Beck and Limitations of the Psychoanalytic Account -They ascribe purpose to symptoms -They defy validation -They are not disorder-specific -They may explain limited aspects of disorder -Solution: -consider basic themes in the thinking (cognitive content) reported by depressed patients 
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