Normal Vs Abnormal Development
History of Child Treatment
-Throughout history children have been used as labourers and those with
behavioural problems were seen as possessed; and those with intellectual disabilities
were kept in cages
-Cruelty to animals became a punishable offense in England in 1911- 60 years
earlier than did cruelty to children.
-The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) were established in
-New Zealand first adopted the principles of the CRC in 1993.
-To this day- New Zealand government does not have a Minister for Children,
though it does have one for horse racing.
-The UN Convention says that children have a right to:
2. Develop to their fullest potential
3. Access education
4. Protection from harmful influences, abuse, and explotation
5. Participate fully in family, cultural, and social life.
6. Have their views, wants, and needs respected.
Erik Ericson’s Theory of Child Development
-Stage 1- Trust vs Mistrust
-1 year of life
-A feeling of trust is developed in an environment where the
child feels physically comfortable and experiences a minimal amount of fear.
-Depends largely on the quality of the parent-child relationship
-Sets the stage for seeing the world as a safe/pleasant/nice
place to live in.
-Stage 2- Autonomy Vs Shame and Doubt
-1-3 years old
-After gaining trust infants feel safe to assert their
-High restraint or harsh punishment during infancy can lead to
a sense of shame and doubt in themselves
-Stage 3- Initiative Vs Guilt
- Preschool ( 3-5 years old)
-Initiative adds to autonomy the quality of undertaking,
planning, and attacking a task for the sake of being active in mee