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PSYC203 (40)

Part 1- L1.docx

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Gareth Treharne

Part 1- L1 Normal .vs. abnormal development History of child treatment - Throughout history children have been used as labourers and those with behavioural problems were seen as possessed - Those with intellectual disabilities were kept in cages - Cruelty to animals became punishable in 1911 o 60 earlier than cruelty to children - Parents were able to do whatever they wanted to their children. - There were very little laws and rights. - The UN convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was established 1989 - NZ adopted these principles in 1993 - NZ government does not have a Minister for Children - Un convention, children have a right to: o Survival o Develop to their fullest potential o Access to education o Protection from harmful influences, abuse, and exploitation o Participate fully in family, cultural and social life o Have their views, wants, and needs respected Erik Ericsons theory of child development - Ericson’s theory is most probably the best - Psychologists use it for guiding child development. - Stage 1 o TRUST .VS. MISTRUST o 1 year of life o Feeling of trust is developed in an environment where the child feels physically comfortable and experiences a minimal amount of fear o Depends largely on the quality of parent-child relationship o Sets the stage for seeing the world as a safe/pleasant/nice place to live o Having a problem in one stage will remain with the person over time o You do not get stuck in a certain stage but you do lack the properties the stage has o Childs basic needs are met o Reliabilities are made (fed, changed etc.) o The opposite results will happen if needs are not met o World will be seen as scary and unpredictable - Stage 2 o AUTONOMY .VS. SHAME AND DOUBT o 1-3 year o After gaining trust infants feel safe to assert their autonomy/independence o High restraint or high punishment during infancy can lead to a sense of shame and doubt in themselves o Self-sufficient behaviour. o teaching to do things for themselves o you can’t do everything for them all the time and never let them do/learn anything  They won’t learn anything or develop a sense of independence o On the contrary if you always make them do it themselves they will be embarrassed and shameful because they cannot do it o Modelling will help the child learn o Asking them if they know how to do it and then if they still cant do it model it for them - Stage 3 o INITIATIVE .VS. GUILT o 3-5 years o Initiative adds to autonomy o The quality of undertaking, planning and attacking a task for the sake of being active in meeting life challenges o Developing a sense of responsibility increases initiative o Guilt feeling may arise if the child is made to feel irresponsible or too anxious about successfully meeting challenges o Need to encourage the initiative. o Having really high expectations, such as when the parent is getting angry o Parents need to be patient and supportive. - Stage 4 o INDUSTRY .VS. INFERIORITY o 5-12 years o Initiative leads to contact with new information which leads to mastery and knowledge o Teachers play a significant role in childs feelings of inferiority/positive sense of self o Increase effectiveness in good particular areas o Learn persistence for those areas they aren’t good at o This revolves a lot at school. - Stage 5 o IDENTITY .VS. ROLE CONFUSION o 12-18 years o The adolescent is newly concerned wih how they appear to others o Positive id
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