Lecture 2- SM-V- classicifications and evidence based practice
o Everyone possesses all characteristics to varying degrees.
o People are rated as above or below average
o Rank someone on a type of scale for different symptoms/behaviour.
o There is no yes or no, but a degree of ranking
o Experiences differ in degree from those of the ‘normal’ population but are not
o On a continuum
× Where was the average taken from?
× You would try to get a random sample of age/ethnicity etc.
Insensitive to contextual effects
× Context settings
× Children behave differently in different contexts
Issues on what is considered to be the norm?
× E.g. ‘he acts too young’
× How children behave, relatively to other children
× Teacher would be better to see this than a parent because they are
around children more often.
o DSM is categorical
o Distinctive categories that are “black and white”
o Either meet the criteria or you don’t
o It can be hard for people to meet all of the criteria.
o People differ in number of symptoms and degree of symptoms
o Based on presence of symptoms
Behaviours seldom falls neatly into categories
Dichotomous diagnosis process in which they have it or not
Sub-threshold but impaired? Sub-threshold – ADHD, what if you meet only 5
out of the 9 symptoms and the symptoms still affects your everyday life?
Different causes and therefore different treatments
Different disorders can have similar symptoms. E.G. ADHD and anxiety.
- Diagnoses of mental health conditions, such as DSM classifications, largely follow biological
or disease/medical model of mental health
- According to this model, accurate diagnosing is important to ensure consistent treatment
and research in relation to mental health disorders
- Based on research and field trainings
o Strongly evidence based
o Overlap between disorders People are diagnosed with multiple disorders
Children usually have another disorder along with ADHD
ADHD and anxiety, a lot of overlap
Sometimes it can be more of an environmental issue, it’s not that the
individual has a problem but it’s because of environmental causes
The environment is dysfunctional
o Access to treatment
- DSM makes it easier to write a report so others understand the lingo.
- Assessment techniques
o We look at more of a holistic way.
Each person is individual.
Clinical do case formulations.
o 1st start with what problem is. Try to get a holistic image of what’s going on.
× With children it’s easier than adults.
× Children remember more about their past than adults. E.G. When
they learned to eat walk talk at normal developmental stages.
× Oppositional compliant behaviours are linked to speech problems.
× Also medical issues when child was young.
× Trouble at school can cause problems to mental health.
× Number of parents
× single or not
× Number of siblings will cause diff environments for children to be
brought up in.
× Family systems, children all feed off each other, so what one does
others may do.