Part 1- L4
- 3 types
o Predominantly Inattentive
o Predominantly Hyperactive/Impulsive
- Need to have 6.
- If have 6 of each then you are combined.
- If 6 in one 3 in other then its predominantly that ADHD sub-group
o Squirms and fidgets
o Can’t stay seated
o Runs/climbs excessively
o Can’t play/work quietly
o On the go/“Driven by a motor”
o Talks excessively
o Blurts out answers
o Can’t wait turn
o Intrudes/interrupts others
o Urge to act out is not inhibited
o Doesn’t listen
o No follow through
o Forgetful in daily activities
o Can’t organize
o Avoids/dislikes tasks requiring sustained mental effort
o Loses important items
o Difficulty sustaining attention in activity
o Easily distractible
o Not able to focus on something to be able to focus on something.
o This is an inability to focus whereas defiant disorder is because they don’t want to.
o Difficulty with working memory.
o Lack of self-control.
o Can’t control cognition or regulate emotions.
o With game it’s externally regulating your attention.
o Games capture your attention, so it’s doing the work for you.
o Studying is internal regulation of attention.
Classified under neurodevelopment disorder
Symptoms must be:
- Present before 12years of age
o Used to be 7y/o in DSM 4 - Occur across two or more settings
- Maladaptive/interfere and inconsistent with developmental level (social, academic,
o If you are quite happy and bubbly and it doesn’t affect your life in a negative way
then you will not be ADHD
- Not better explained by another disorder
- Need to rule out anxiety, something in environment and other things
- Highly Heritable
o 60-80% chances that 1 or more of their child will have ADHD.
o 70-80% heritability in twins with ADHD.
o Doesn’t imply its genetic, it could be through modelling.
o Adoptive- 3 times higher than biological.
o 51% concordance MZ twins; 31% DZ twins
o 58-83% MZ; 31-47% DZ
o Hypo (below norm) activity in frontal lobe, basal ganglia thalamus, parietal cortex
o Lack of dopamine
o Lower than normal norepinephrine activity in PFC
- Begins in childhood
o 3-6% children are diagnosed as having ADHD
o Some but not all symptoms abate (decrease as ADHD patient gets older
o 40% children with ADHD continue to have problems into late adolescence
o 10% children with ADHD continue to have problems into adulthood
o 1-6% adults meet ADHD criteria
Most know how to control their symptoms
- Developmental in Nature
- Difficulties in:
o Cognitive functioning
Lagging by 1/3 of their peers. They’re still learning as others are stopping.
25% have come sort of learning difficulty
Neurotransmitter dysfunction- lower dopamine. Ritalin*