Part 1- L7
- Excessively anxious concerning separation
- Preoccupation with returning home to attachment figures
- Inability to remain in a room alone or display clinging behaviour
- With parents, can be one or both parents.
- Clingy - even if outside or leave room
- Developmentally inappropriate and excessive fear or anxiety concerning separation from
those to whom the individual is attached, as evidenced by at least 3 of the following:
o Recurrent or excessive distress when anticipating or experiencing separation from
home or from major attachment figures.
o Persistent and excessive worry about losing major attachment figures or about
possible harm to them, such as illness, injury, disasters, or death.
o Persistent and excessive worry about experiencing an untoward event (e.g., getting
lost, being kidnapped, having an accident, becoming ill) that causes separation from
a major attachment figure.
o Persistent reluctance or refusal to go out, away from home, to school, or work, or
elsewhere because of fear of separation.
o Persistent and excessive fear of or reluctance about being alone or without major
attachment figures at home or in other settings.
o Persistent reluctance or refusal to sleep away from home or to go to sleep without
being near a major attachment figure.
o Repeated nightmares involving the theme of separation.
o Repeated complaints of physical symptoms (e.g., headaches, stomach aches,
nausea, vomiting) when separation from major attachment figures occurs or is
o The fear, anxiety, or avoidance is persistent, lasting at least 4 weeks in children and
adolescents and typically six months or more in adults
o The disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social,
academic, occupational, or other important areas of functioning
o The disturbance is not better explained by another mental disorder, such as refusing
to leave home because of excessive resistance to change in autism spectrum
disorder; delusions or hallucinations concerning separation in psychotic disorders;
refusal to go outside without a trusted companion in agoraphobia; worries about ill
health or other harm befalling others in generalized anxiety disorder; or concerns
about having an illness in illness anxiety disorder.
- Children > 5-8 years
- Children > 9-12 years
- Adolescents > 13-16 years
- very withdrawn, sad, empathetic, can be easily confused with depression because there is
withdrawal and sadness but this is in response leaving parents
o Anxiety runs in famili