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Part 1-L9.docx

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Gareth Treharne

Part 1 – L9 Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism Spectrum Disorder - Differentiated from schizophrenia only in 1971 - In DSM4 diagnoses of o Autism o Asperger's o Pervasive development disorder - These are all now categorized as Autism Spectrum Disorder DSM4 - Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts as manifest by the following, currently or by history: o Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity (exchange)  From abnormal social approach and failure of normal back-and-forth conversation  To reduced sharing of interests, emotions, or affect  To failure to initiate or respond to social interactions.  Failure to develop peer relationships  Lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests or achievements with other people  Lack of social or emotional reciprocity o Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviours used for social interaction  Poorly integrated verbal and nonverbal communication  delay in, or total lack of, the development of spoken language  impairment in the use of non-verbal behaviours, such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression and gestures, to regulate social interaction  Abnormalities in eye contact and body language or deficits in understanding and use of gestures  Total lack of facial expressions and nonverbal communication. o Deficits in developing , maintaining, and understanding relationships  Difficulties in adjusting behaviour to suit various social context  Difficulties in sharing imaginative play or making friends  Absence of interest in peers. - They will keep talking about what they are interested in - Being interested in one thing, manifests in many ways like talking about that one thing. - Focused on parts of objects. They do not see people’s faces as separate parts that have non- verbal responses. - No interested in other people. - You don’t grow out of it and it doesn’t go away - They often express the wrong emotion o i.e. lost wallet and they will smile. - They have abnormalities in eye contact - Do not take abstract verbal things like sarcasm - They end up learning that a smile means happiness - They need to learn rules. - They don’t want friends or not interested in other people. o In ADHD they want friends just hard to get them. - Restrictive, repetitive behaviour, interests, or activities, as manifest by at least two of the following, currently or by history: o Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech  (e.g., simple motor stereotypies, lining up toys or flipping objects, echolalia, idiosyncratic phrases) o Insistence in sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behaviour (e.g., extreme distress at small changes, difficulties with transitions, rigid thinking patterns, greeting rituals, need to take same route or
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