Part 1 – L9
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism Spectrum Disorder
- Differentiated from schizophrenia only in 1971
- In DSM4 diagnoses of
o Pervasive development disorder
- These are all now categorized as Autism Spectrum Disorder
- Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts as
manifest by the following, currently or by history:
o Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity (exchange)
From abnormal social approach and failure of normal back-and-forth
To reduced sharing of interests, emotions, or affect
To failure to initiate or respond to social interactions.
Failure to develop peer relationships
Lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests or achievements
with other people
Lack of social or emotional reciprocity
o Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviours used for social interaction
Poorly integrated verbal and nonverbal communication
delay in, or total lack of, the development of spoken language
impairment in the use of non-verbal behaviours, such as eye-to-eye gaze,
facial expression and gestures, to regulate social interaction
Abnormalities in eye contact and body language or deficits in understanding
and use of gestures
Total lack of facial expressions and nonverbal communication.
o Deficits in developing , maintaining, and understanding relationships
Difficulties in adjusting behaviour to suit various social context
Difficulties in sharing imaginative play or making friends
Absence of interest in peers.
- They will keep talking about what they are interested in
- Being interested in one thing, manifests in many ways like talking about that one thing.
- Focused on parts of objects. They do not see people’s faces as separate parts that have non-
- No interested in other people.
- You don’t grow out of it and it doesn’t go away
- They often express the wrong emotion
o i.e. lost wallet and they will smile.
- They have abnormalities in eye contact
- Do not take abstract verbal things like sarcasm
- They end up learning that a smile means happiness
- They need to learn rules. - They don’t want friends or not interested in other people.
o In ADHD they want friends just hard to get them.
- Restrictive, repetitive behaviour, interests, or activities, as manifest by at least two of the
following, currently or by history:
o Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech
(e.g., simple motor stereotypies, lining up toys or flipping objects, echolalia,
o Insistence in sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of
verbal or nonverbal behaviour (e.g., extreme distress at small changes, difficulties
with transitions, rigid thinking patterns, greeting rituals, need to take same route or