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Part 2- L3.docx

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Gareth Treharne

Part 2- L3 Measuring psychopathology DSM - The DSM system is ‘multi-axial’. - That is, it allows an individual’s mental state to be evaluated on five different axes: o Axis 1: the presence or absence of most clinical syndromes, such as schizophrenia, mood, and eating disorders o Axis 2: the presence or absence of stable long-term conditions, including personality disorders and learning disabilities o Axis 3: relevant information on the individual’s physical health o Axis 4: psychosocial and environmental problems o Axis 5: rating of an individual’s global level of functioning: from a score of 1 for persistent violence, suicidal behaviour or inability to maintain personal hygiene to 100, symptom-free. - Dichotomy between normal and abnormal - Tried to identify mental health problems in a similar way across cultures - Why measure psychopathology? o To identify boundaries of appropriate use  Advert misuse or abuse of measures o To know constraints on interpretation of results  Limits of meaning o To understand the constructs tabbed by the measure o To ensure that patients can benefit from assessment practice - Correlation o Significance criterion o R > .197, n = 100 - Reliability o The replicability of the score o The consistency or stability od a score across measurements o The proportion of true-score variance in a fallible score o Sources of error  Item content × Behaviours are sampled by items × Domains of behaviour × Methodology  Alternative form reliability  Split-half reliability  Internal consistency reliability  Assessment episode × Methodology  Test-retest reliability  Rater’s and interviewers × Methodology  Inter rater reliability - Validity o The meaningfulness of a score o The degree to which a score corresponds to the construct that the measure is assumer to quantify o Methodologies  Concurrent validity × Correlation between a score and a criterion score  Predictive validity × Correlation between a score and a criterion outcome
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