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Part 2- L4.docx

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Gareth Treharne

Part 2- L4 Personality disorder and Diathesis - We characterise people by their personalities/character/behaviours - Different ways at looking at cause of mental disorders o a) the personality in itself is disordered causing the mental disorder o A) the mental disorder causes a disordered personality DSM5 - Personality disorders are also known as axis 2 disorders within DSM - stable long-term conditions - arbitrary definitions - extreme of the distribution of personality disorder - An enduring pattern of infer experience and behaviour that deviates from the norm and: a. Is manifest in 2 or more of the following area  Cognition  Affect/mood  Interpersonal function  Impulse control b. Is inflexible and pervasive (persistent) c. Leads to clinically significant distress or impairment d. Is stable and of long durations - Five-factor model of personality o Low neuroticism  Lack of appropriate concern for potential problems in health or social adjustment; emotional blandness o Low extraversion  Social isolation, interpersonal detachment, lack of support networks, flattened affect; lack of joy and zest for life; reluctance to assert self or assume leadership roles, even when qualified; social inhibition and shyness. o Low openness  difficulty adapting to social or personal change; low tolerance or understanding of different points of view or lifestyles; emotional blandness and inability to understand and verbalize own feelings; alexithymia; constricted range of interests; insensitivity to art and beauty; excessive conformity to authority. o Low agreeableness  cynicism and paranoid thinking; inability to trust even friends or family; quarrelsomeness; ready to pick fights; exploitive and manipulative, ; lying; rude and inconsiderate manner alienates friends; limits social support; lack of respect for social conventions  Can lead to trouble with the law; inflated and grandiose sense of self; arrogance. o Low conscientiousness Clusters and classifications - People are diagnosed with a particular personality disorder. - Odd eccentric cluster o Paranoid o Schizoid  Social withdrawal and detachment  Does not enjoy close relationships  Frequently chooses solitary activities  Little interest in having sexual experiences with another person  Appears indifferent to the praise or criticism of others  Shows emotional coldness, detachment or flattened mood. Don’t o Schizotypal need to  Frequently experiences ideas of reference  Has odd beliefs that influence behaviour and are inconsistent with sub- know cultural norms they  Unusual perceptual experiences, including bodily illusions. are  Odd thinking and speech  Show suspiciousness or paranoid ideation  Appear eccentric,  Lack close friends  Experience excessive social anxiety. - Dramatic flamboyant cluster o Anti-social o Borderline o Histrionic (dramatic) o Narcissistic (vein, self-absorbed)  Slight link between OCD and narcissism. o Callous o Instability in relationships and self-identity. - Anxious fearful cluster o Avoidant o Dependent o Obsessive-compulsive o Avoid social relationships, or over dependant on others o Slight OCD but more perfectionism Traits/types - Premises o The construct is not equal to the set of criteria for diagnosis o Personality as a diathesis (cause) for mental disorder  A tendency to suffer from a particular medical condition  Their personality leads them to suffer the mental disorder - between 24 and 74 per cent of people diagnosed with a personality disorder also have major depression - Is the construct continuous or discontinuous? o Continuous  Dimension  Continuum  Quantity  Graduated  All carry some risk  Some carry more risk than others o Discontinuous  Category  Quality  All or nothing  Some are at risk where others are not  Density= commonality of thes
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