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Lecture

Part 3- L2.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC203
Professor
Gareth Treharne
Semester
Spring

Description
Part 3- L2 Addition- Substance use disorders Q: What are the defining features of addiction? A: When someone behaviour is controlled by something - Need for dose escalation o Tolerance - Withdrawal on cessation - ABNORMAL Addiction - A compulsion and need to continue taking drugs as a results of taking them in the past - Internet addiction o In DSM5 addiction is defined using the terms substance use disorder o It is not a disorder in the DSM5 o Ko et. al diagnostic criteria  Maladaptive pattern of internet use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress = functional impairment × One or more of:  Recurrent internet use resulting in a failure to fulfil major role obligation at school AND at home  Impairment of social relationships  Violating school rules or laws due to internet use  Occurring at any time within the same 3 month period  Internet use not better accounted by: × Psychotic disorder × Bipolar disorder  Defined as a disorder of childhood o Six or more of the following nine symptoms  Preoccupation with internet activities  Recurrent failure to resist internet use  Marked increase in the duration of internet use needed to achieve satisfaction × i.e. tolerance  withdrawal on cessation × Dysphoric (characterized by anxiety, depression, or unease) mood, anxiety, irritability and/or boredom when the internet is down × use of the internet to relieve or avoid the above symptoms  use of the internet for longer than intended  persistent desire to reduce internet use  excessive time spent on internet activities and leaving the internet  Excessive effort spent on activities necessary to obtain access to the interne  continued heavy internet use despite having a physical or psychological problem likely to have been caused or exacerbated by internet o Research Ko et al. 2005  454 Taiwanese adolescents from two urban schools  Mean age = 15.25 (range= 12-19)  68% were male, 32% female  Clinical interviews by seven psychiatrists  None were psychotic or bipolar  Results × The seven psychiatrists had good inter-rater reliability × 90 apparent cases of internet addiction  More common among boys (29%) than girls (16%)  More common amount younger participants (<15 y/o)  75% of cases were frequently played online games, but not assessed for GAMBLING DISORDER  Limitations × Proposed diagnostic criteria trying too hard to match those of substance use disorder × Focus on young people  Their SES?? × Little information about behaviour  Accessing the internet  Social impact  Benefits? × How could internet addiction be treated? Criteria - Functional impairment o Clinically significant impairment or distress - Within a 12 month period - APA, 2+ of o Greater than intended USE o Persistent desire to reduce use o Excessive time obtaining, using or recovering o Cravings o Not fulfilling major role obligation IMPAIRMENT o Continued use despite related social problems o Important occupational recreational activities given up o Use in physically hazardous situations DANGER o Continued use despite physical or psychological problems o Tolerance ADDICTION o Withdrawal Awareness - Are people with substance use disorder aware of it? o Greater use than intended o Persistent desire to reduce use o Excessive time obtaining, using and recovering o Cravings o Not fulfilling major obligations o Continued use despite related social problems o Important occupational recreational activities given up o Use in physically hazardous situations o Continued use despite physical or psychological problems o Tolerance o Withdrawal A model to explain recovery - Motivation to change is important o Can be achieved in very brief interventions - Can apply the transtheoretical model o Literally meaning “across theories” - Aim of the model = understand processes of change is common to all theories of psychotherapy - Also commonly known as the ‘Stages of Change Model’ Pure crystal methamphetamine (P) - Mechanism o Release dopamine - Short-term effects o Euphoria and alertness, becoming agitated and insomnia o Decrease appetite o Sweating and diarrhoea - Potential long-term effects o Meth-mouth  severe decay and loss of teeth  drug-induced xerostomia (dry mouth) and bruxism (grinding of the teeth) o Psychosis
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