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PSYC476 (18)
Lecture

7. Alcohol 2.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC476
Professor
Kristin Hillman
Semester
Fall

Description
Alcohol 2 Patterns of alcohol use in NZ:  Alcohol use in NZ is different to the rest of the world Patterns of Use:  Experimentation (especially when young), social drinking, culinary drinking (drink wine with meals), recreational drinking (drinking to party), binge drinking (large amounts in one sitting with intention to get drunk)  What are the key differences between these behaviours? o Amount o Intention/reasons o Variety/type of drink o Age o Environment and atmosphere o Time span o Enjoyment of drink o Social acceptance o Social pressure  Alcoholism (constant use at high levels)  1950s – AMA recognized syndrome of alcoholism as an illness  1970s – alcoholism redefined as a chronic, progressive disease  1990s – expanded definition: o Alcoholism is a primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations…  This definition at least said that other factors play into the development of the disease (such as psychosocial factors like choosing to drink)…still says it’s a disease  In nz, money does go towards this from government because of our public health care system – need to think about this in disease sense… Chronic alcoholism  Characterized by: o Tolerance o Dependence o Health damage  Cirrhosis (liver damage)  Normal liver starts to be replaced by scar tissues and fatty cells (useless organ)  Only way to treat this is to get a new liver...  Should alcoholics be eligible for liver transplants?  In our health care system, you have to be blind to reasons for liver transplant… o Dementia (Korsakoff’s syndrome)  Lose neurons in brain, become demented from it o GI problems (pancreatitis, gastritis, ulcers) o Nutritional imbalance (especially vitamins, glycemic state – keeping blood sugar constant) o Muscle wasting  breaking down protein – body is trying to get energy, starts breaking down muscles o Major risk for cancer  Tolerance and dependence:  Persons who regularly ingest large amounts of alcohol easily develop tolerance o Pharmacokinetic  Alcohol dehydrogenase upregulated to try and handle that load (eat up alcohol quicker – need to drink more to get an effect) in liver o Pharmacodynamic  Receptors adapt to ethanol’s effect  When agonist is prolonged:  can lose efficacy  can start to internalize and start to pull a
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