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Lecture

BIOL101 Lecture Notes - Uracil, Hydrolysis, Cell Nucleus


Department
Biochemistry
Course Code
BIOL101
Professor
Dr Ryan Martinus

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Lecture Notes from Dr Ryan Martinus on the 8/7/13.
Introduction to Molecular Biology.
The spectrum of biological organization
Ecosystems
Communities
Populations
Individuals
Organs
Tissues
Cells }
Organelles } we will be learning about these levels.
Macromolecules }
Cells are the lowest level of biological organization that can perform all
activities required for life.
Prokaryote: No membrane-bound nucleus
Generally smaller
Eukaryote: Membrane-bound nucleus
Generally larger
Membrane-bound organelles
E.g. mitochondria, ER, ribosomes, golgi bodies,
lysosomes etc.
We need techniques to study cells as most plant and animal cells reside in
the range of 0.1mm-0.0001mm. A light microscope is required to see these
in any detail.
BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES
There are four categories of large molecules in cells:
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
FOUR IMPORTANT FUNCTIONAL GROUPS
Hydroxyl group -OH
Carbonyl group C=O
Amino group -NH2
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Carboxyl group -COOH
Many biological molecules have two or more functional groups.
Q. How do cells make large molecules out of smaller organic molecules?
Think about this.
The position of functional groups is very important. The positioning of =O
and OH makes the difference between one of the estrogens and
testosterone.
DEHYDRATION REACTION
Short Polymer + monomer -> Longer polymer + H2O
A polymer grows in length when an incoming monomer and the monomer at
the end of the existing chain contribute to the formation of a water molecule,
the monomers then replace their lost covalent bonds with a bond to each
other.
HYDROLYSIS REACTION
The opp. to above.
Breaking a polymer chain hydrolysis reverses the process by breaking
down the polymer with the addition of water molecules, which break the
bonds between monomers.
Complex carbohydrates are polymers of simple sugars.
Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides
Q. Where is DNA found in your body?
A. In all cells, including cells involved in reproduction.
NITROGENOUS BASES
Pyrimidines (one organic circle)
Cytosine (C), Thymine (T, in DNA), and Uracil (U, in RNA).
Purines (two organic circles)
Adenine (A), and Guanine (G).
SUGARS
Deoxyribose (in DNA), and Ribose (in RNA). These two again show the
importance of position, the only difference in these molecules is that in
Deoxribose, there is an H and in Ribose there is an OH.
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