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Victoria University of Wellington
SOSC 111
Kevin Dew

Deviance Norbert Elias  A history of „restraint‟ o We mold ourselves and others more deliberately today o Process occurs as individuals of different social origins are thrown th together  13 century o A mean who blows his nose on the table cloth is ill bred  1729 o One of the greatest offences against civility is to blow your nose on the serviette “There are those who teach that the boy should retain wind by compressing the belly. Yet it is not pleasing…if it is possible to withdraw, it should be done alone. But if not, in accordance with the ancient proverb, let a cough hide the sound” (Erasmus, 1530) Moreover, it does not befit a modest, honorable man to prepare to relieve nature in the presence of other people…It is far less proper to hold out the stinking thing (come across in the street) for the other to smell, as some are wont, who even urge the other to do so, lifting the foul-smelling thing to his nostrils and saying “I should like to know how much that stinks” (1558) o Changes in norms over time, for example gender changes, used to been seen as very unusual and deviant for a woman to walk into a bar alone o Changes in what is seen as acceptable and unacceptable, or deviant, behavior – where social control becomes necessary Social Control o The development of deviant self-identities requires negative sanctioning or social control o Through social control we are able to create the identity of deviance o Most obvious examples of social control is when it is overt and comes from recognized authority figures, and is directed at particular individuals or groups o Also less overt social processes which have an important control element e.g., doctors o Medicine and law have taken over the function of social control from religion. o Religious norm – „heretic‟ o Legal norm – „criminal‟ o Medical norm – „sick‟ o But also „social‟ norms e.g. peer pressure Cesare Lombroso o Italian physician o Positivist school of criminology o Biological inferiority of criminals o Stigmata (signs on the body) separate criminals from the non-criminals o Theory of atavism (throwback) o His views dominated European criminology for 35years o Obsessed with the nature of the criminal mind o Looked at finding things that could cause a person to commit a crime o Tried to establish if criminals were physically different to non-criminals o For example, studied skulls, believed the brains of a criminal were different to those of a non-criminals o Displayed in face – protruding lips o Criminal profiling XYY Theory (1965) o Extra Y chromosome – hyper masculinity o Scottish prisoners o Richard Speck – murdered 8 student nurses in 1966 in Chicago – didn‟t have the extra Y chromosome o No evidence to support theory – XYY is just as common in non-criminals than in criminals – theory soon debunked o Becomes a sort of cultural myth because the theory was so appealing to many people The Warrior Gene o August 2006 media reports o Variant of (MAO)-A gene „strongly associated with risk taking and aggressive behavior o Strikingly over-represented in Maori men o BUT o Rod Lea‟s research was based on a sample of 17!!! Very unscientific when making a strong claim about a population o Other research shows gene variant could predict nothing about aggressive behavior 1999-2000
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