Lecture Notes from Dr Ryan Martinus on the 8/7/13.
Introduction to Molecular Biology.
The spectrum of biological organization
Organelles } we will be learning about these levels.
Cells are the lowest level of biological organization that can perform all
activities required for life.
Prokaryote: No membrane-bound nucleus
Eukaryote: Membrane-bound nucleus
E.g. mitochondria, ER, ribosomes, golgi bodies,
We need techniques to study cells as most plant and animal cells reside in
the range of 0.1mm-0.0001mm. A light microscope is required to see these
in any detail.
There are four categories of large molecules in cells:
FOUR IMPORTANT FUNCTIONAL GROUPS
Hydroxyl group -OH
Carbonyl group C=O
Amino group -NH
2 Carboxyl group -COOH
Many biological molecules have two or more functional groups.
Q. How do cells make large molecules out of smaller organic molecules?
Think about this.
The position of functional groups is very important. The positioning of =O
and –OH makes the difference between one of the estrogens and
Short Polymer + monomer -> Longer polymer + H O 2
A polymer grows in length when an incoming monomer and the monomer at
the end of the existing chain contribute to the formation of a water molecule,
the monomers then replace their lost covalent bonds with a bond to each
The opp. to above.
Breaking a polymer chain – hydrolysis reverses the process by breaking
down the polymer with the addition of water molecules, which break the
bonds between monomers.
Complex carbohydrates are polymers of simple sugars.