Lecture Notes: Introduction to Molecular Biology

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Department
Biochemistry
Course
BIOL101
Professor
Dr Ryan Martinus
Semester
Spring

Description
Lecture Notes from Dr Ryan Martinus on the 8/7/13. Introduction to Molecular Biology. The spectrum of biological organization Ecosystems Communities Populations Individuals Organs Tissues Cells } Organelles } we will be learning about these levels. Macromolecules } Cells are the lowest level of biological organization that can perform all activities required for life. Prokaryote: No membrane-bound nucleus Generally smaller Eukaryote: Membrane-bound nucleus Generally larger Membrane-bound organelles E.g. mitochondria, ER, ribosomes, golgi bodies, lysosomes etc. We need techniques to study cells as most plant and animal cells reside in the range of 0.1mm-0.0001mm. A light microscope is required to see these in any detail. BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES There are four categories of large molecules in cells:  Carbohydrates  Lipids  Proteins  Nucleic Acids FOUR IMPORTANT FUNCTIONAL GROUPS  Hydroxyl group -OH  Carbonyl group C=O  Amino group -NH 2  Carboxyl group -COOH Many biological molecules have two or more functional groups. Q. How do cells make large molecules out of smaller organic molecules? Think about this. The position of functional groups is very important. The positioning of =O and –OH makes the difference between one of the estrogens and testosterone. DEHYDRATION REACTION Short Polymer + monomer -> Longer polymer + H O 2 A polymer grows in length when an incoming monomer and the monomer at the end of the existing chain contribute to the formation of a water molecule, the monomers then replace their lost covalent bonds with a bond to each other. HYDROLYSIS REACTION The opp. to above. Breaking a polymer chain – hydrolysis reverses the process by breaking down the polymer with the addition of water molecules, which break the bonds between monomers. Complex carbohydrates are polymers of simple sugars. Nucleic acid
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