BIOL 1003 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Planetary Science, Reductionism, Hydrosphere

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22 Nov 2017
Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of science related to
the planet Earth. It is the branch of science dealing with the physical constitution of the
earth and its atmosphere. Earth science is the study of our planet’s physical characteristics,
from earthquakes to raindrops, and floods to fossils. Earth science can be considered to be
a branch of planetary science, but with a much older history. “Earth science” is a broad
term that encompasses four main branches of study, each of which is further broken down
into more specialized fields.
There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences. It is also the study of
the Earth and its neighbors in space. Some Earth scientists use their knowledge of the Earth
to locate and develop energy and mineral resources. Others study the impact of human
activity on Earth's environment, and design methods to protect the planet. Some use their
knowledge about Earth processes such as volcanoes, earthquakes, and hurricanes to plan
communities that will not expose people to these dangerous events.
The Earth sciences can include the study of geology, the lithosphere, and the large-scale
structure of the Earth's interior, as well as the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.
Typically, Earth scientists use tools from geography, chronology, physics, chemistry, biology,
and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the Earth works and evolves.
Earth science affects our everyday lives. For example, meteorologists study the weather and
watch for dangerous storms. Hydrologists study water and warn of floods. Seismologists
study earthquakes and try to predict where they will strike. Geologists study rocks and help
to locate useful minerals. Earth scientists mainly work “in the field”—climbing mountains,
exploring the seabed, crawling through caves, or wading in swamps. They measure and
collect samples (such as rocks or river water), then they record their findings on charts
and maps.
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