ANT-1430 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Prehensile Tail, New World Monkey, Pongidae

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Diversity of primate behavior
Two main groups (sub-orders) of primates:
Strepsirrhini
Haplorhini
If you are in Madagascar and run into a primate, what sub-order is it
likely from?
Strepsirhini
New World monkeys (ceboidea)
50 species
Nasal morphology: flat noses (platyrrhines)
Dentition: 2.1.3.3
Diet: fruit, seeds, leaves, gums, insects
Locomotion: arboreal quadruped; prehensile tail (tail can grab things)
Old World monkeys (Cercopithecoidea)
80 species
Nasal morphology: downward facing nostrils (catarrhines)
Dentition: 2.1.2.3
Locomotion: quadrupeds; no grasping tail
Live in wide open areas, live in groups to help protect from predators
Apes (hominoidea)
14 species
the lesser apes
Orangutans, gorillas, bonobos, and chimpanzees (pongidae)
The great apes
Humans and human ancestors (hominidae)
Us
Shared anatomical features of hominoids (apes):
Simple molars
No tail
Short, broad trunk, long arm to leg ratio
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