BIO-1801 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Hydrogen Bond, Chemical Polarity, Electron Shell

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6 Feb 2017
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chemical bonds
covalent: two atoms share pairs of electrons
polar covalent
non polar covalent
hydrogen: an atom with a partial negative charge attracts and atom with
a partial positive charge. Form between adjacent molecules or between
different parts of large molecule
ionic: one atom donates one or more electrons to another atom, forming
oppositely charged ion that attract each other
Covalent bonds
atoms share electrons
occurs between atoms whose outer electron shell are not full
covalent bonds come in different types
single covalent bond
ex. hydrogen gas, H2
double covalent bond oxygen gas
ex. oxygen, two pairs of electrons being shared - double bond
triple covalent bond
shares three pairs of electrons, ex. N2
Polar covalent bonds
polar: there is a charge involved, + or -
water is a polar molecule
electronegativity
the tendency of the atom to pull electrons towards itself
non-polar covalent bonds
bonds between atoms with similar electronegativities
equal sharing of electrons
Hydrogen bond
hydrogen atom from one polar molecule attracted to an electronegative atom
Ionic bonds
an ion is an atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons
now has a net electric charge
cations: net positive charge
anions: net negative charge
ionic bond occurs when a cation binds to an anion
cation: positive
anion: negative
ex of ionic bond: NaCl
Water chemistry
single most outstanding chemical property of water is its ability to form
hydrogen bonds
three states
Large thermal range
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