BIO-1801 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Theodor Boveri, Walter Sutton, Blending Inheritance

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14 May 2018
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Mendel and the Gene
Chapter 14
Introduction: Gregor Mendel worked out the rules of inheritance through a serious of
experiments on garden peas. Walter Sutton and Theodor Boveri proposed the chromosome
theory of inheritance. Asserted that genes are located on chromosomes. Linked inheritance to
meiosis.
I. Medel’s epeietal sste.
A. Two hypotheses had been formulated
1. Blending inheritance- Parental traits blend so that their offspring have
intermediate traits.
2. Inheritance of acquired characteristics-Parental traits are modified through use
and then passed on.
B. The Pea Garden served as the First Model Organism in Genetics. Mendel chose peas
because he can control which parents were involved in a mating. Have several
polymorphic traits that occur in two or more forms. Mendel studies 7 observable
characters(traits) that had two different forms (variants) of garden peas. He did NOT
know about chromosomes; did not know about genes (characters) have two or more
variants (alleles)
C. Mendel controlled mating through self-fertilization (self-pollinate) or can perform a
cross (cross-pollination)
D. What taits did Medel stud? A idiidual’s oseale featues opise its
phenotype. Medel’s pea populatio had to distit pheotpes fo eah of the
seven traits. Mendel worked with pure lines which produced offspring identical to
themselves when self-fertilized. He used these plants to create hybrids. He mated
two different pure lines that differed in one or more traits.
E. Medel’s epeiets ith a sigle tait
a) Mating parents with two different phenotypes for a single trait is called a
monohybrid cross.
The adults in the cross were the parental generation
The offspring are the F1 generation Fist filial
Next generations are F2,F3, etc.
II. The Monohybrid Cross
A. Mendel crossed plants with round seeds and plants with wrinkled seeds.
a) All of the F1 offspring had round seeds
b) Result contradicted the hypothesis of blending inheritance.
c) The genetic determinant for wrinkled seeds seemed to have disappeared.
B. Mendel allowed the F1 progeny to self-pollinate
a) The wrinkled seed trait reappeared in the F2 generation.
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III. Dominant and Recessive Traits
A. Mendel called
a) The genetic determinant for wrinkled seeds recessive.
b) The determinant for round seeds dominant.
B. Mendel repeated these experiments with each of the other traits. In each case, the
dominant trait was present in a 3:1 ratio over the recessive trait in the F2 generation.
C. Medel’s Hpothesis That pea plats tasitted distit uits o eleete i
predictable ratios. hat he alled eleete is hat e o ko of alleles of
genes.
IV. Medel’s hpothesis of Particulate inheritance
A. Medel’s esults ee iosistet ith leded iheitae ad auied
characters. He proposed a hypothesis of particulate inheritance.
a) Hereditary determinants do not blend or change through use. They act as
discrete, unchanging particles.
V. Genes, Alleles and Genotypes
A. Hereditary determinants for a trait are called genes
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Document Summary

Introduction: gregor mendel worked out the rules of inheritance through a serious of experiments on garden peas. Walter sutton and theodor boveri proposed the chromosome theory of inheritance. Mendel chose peas because he can control which parents were involved in a mating. Have several polymorphic traits that occur in two or more forms. Mendel studies 7 observable characters(traits) that had two different forms (variants) of garden peas. Me(cid:374)del"s pea populatio(cid:374) had t(cid:449)o disti(cid:374)(cid:272)t phe(cid:374)ot(cid:455)pes fo(cid:396) ea(cid:272)h of the seven traits. Mendel worked with pure lines which produced offspring identical to themselves when self-fertilized. He mated two different pure lines that differed in one or more traits: me(cid:374)del"s e(cid:454)pe(cid:396)i(cid:373)e(cid:374)ts (cid:449)ith a si(cid:374)gle t(cid:396)ait, mating parents with two different phenotypes for a single trait is called a monohybrid cross. The adults in the cross were the parental generation. The offspring are the f1 generation (cid:894)(cid:862)fi(cid:396)st filial(cid:863)(cid:895)

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