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Lecture 19

BIO 2400 Lecture 19: Ch 19

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BIO 2400
Annkatrin Rose

Ch. 19 • Production of medicines o Antibiotics o Synthesis of human insulin in recombinant E. coli • Food fermentation o Cheese, yogurt, vinegar, wine, beer • Biological control o Control of plant diseases, insect pests, and weeds o Symbiotic nitrogen fixation o Prevention of frost formation • Bioremediation o Cleanup of environmental pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons and synthetics that are difficult to degrade • Gene Knock Outs o Gene targeting ▪ The process of creating a “knock-out mouse” involves replacing the functional gene with a mutant copy o Homologous recombination ▪ The mutant copy inserts into the genome through this o Gene knockouts allow the study of genetic disorders and drug testing for treatments  Is an animal or plant with a gene knockout a heterozygote or homozygote? homozygous  What might you conclude if a gene knockout does not have a phenotypic effect? -The gene has a redundant function -The gene is actually an inactive pseudogene -The gene is only active under certain environmental conditions, i.e. diet • Transgenic Animals o Use of Green fluorescent protein ▪ Studying subcellular localization and movement of proteins ▪ Tracing gene expression throughout development o Livestock ▪ Molecular pharming • Organismal Cloning o CopyCat—why they don’t look identical…because of barr bodies o Produces two or more genetically identical individuals ▪ Identical twins are genetic clones from one fertilized egg ▪ Different from gene cloning o Easy in plants (asexual reproduction through cuttings), not so easy in animals  What does the phenotype of CC (CopyCat) tell you about the behavior of the X chromosomes in cloning? One X chromosome is already inactive in the reconstituted zygote; so all cells in the clone have the same Barr body. • Proposed De-Extinction Methods o Organismal cloning using frozen cells o Molecular cloning of DNA fragments and splicing into the genome of related animals o “Reverse-engineer” species through breeding • Genetically Modified Plants o Plant domestic
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