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Lecture 7

CSD-4766 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Neuroplasticity, Headache, Adaptive CapacityPremium

3 pages56 viewsFall 2018

Communication Sciences and Disorders
Course Code
Jordan Hazelwood

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Chapter 7 Protection and Nourishment of the Cerebrum
Protection: The Meninges
o A three-layered membrane called the meninges surrounds the brain
Dura mater- most outer layer
Arachnoid mater- middle layer
Pia mater- inner layer
Where there area layers, spaces result
Potential spaces:
o Epidural space- between the skull and dura mater
o Subdural space- between dura mater and arachnoid mater
Actual space- sub-arachnoid space- between arachnoid mater and pia
o Protection: blood-brain barrier
Protects against foreign invaders
Protects against hormones/neurotransmitters in the rest of the body
Maintains constant environment for brain
Developmental problems
Hyperosmolality (increased movement of particles)
Microwaves, radiation
Infection, trauma, ischemia, inflammation, pressure
Nourishment: the Cerebral Arteries
o Brain consumes 20% of body’s oxygen
o Blood enters brain through
Carotid arteries
Vertebral arteries
o These feed the circle of Willis- feeds brain oxygenated blood through:
Anterior cerebral artery
Middle cerebral artery
Posterior cerebral artery
Waste Removal: The Venous System
o Moves deoxygenated blood away from brain
o Removed through four sinuses in meninges
Superior sagittal, transverse, occipital, sigmoid
o Superficial and deep cerebral veins then remove
The Cerebrum
o Two cerebral hemispheres (left and right)
Major layers from superficial to deep:
Surface gray matter (cerebral cortex; neuron somas)
Deep gray matter (thalamus, basal gangia)
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