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Lecture 3

GLY 1103 Lecture 3: Minerals

2 Pages

Course Code
GLY 1103
Brian Zimmer

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Minerals - Naturally occurring - Inorganic - Solid - Definite chemical composition - Regular internal crystalline structure Most rock forming minerals are silicates Rocks formed from cooling lava and/or magma Bowen’s Reaction Series show what temperature rocks formed • Atoms in a mineral are specifically ordered • A solid with disordered atoms are called a glass • Crystalline structure based on atomic patterns • Atomic arrangement is predictable and repetitive Rare minerals display flat external faces Crystal faces form best in the open Crystals are often prized mineral specimens Lattice Atoms are held in place by atomic bonds Bond characteristics govern mineral properties • Covalent- molecules are held together through sharing electrons • Ionic- give up electrons, both filled outer shells • Metallic- nuclei and inner shells float in a sea of free electrons, electrons stream through metal if there is an electric current • Van der Whaals and Hydrogen help hold molecules together Polymorphs- same composition but different crystal structure, diamond and graphite are carbon polymorphs Physical properties- ❖ Color- diagnostic for few minerals, varieties reflect trace impurities ❖ Hardness- scratching resist
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