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Lecture 12

GLY 1103 Lecture 12: Streams and Flooding

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Brian Zimmer

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Streams and Flooding Rivers only hold 0.0002 of all water Drainage Basin (watershed) the source region from which a stream draws its water Divide ridge or crest that separates drainage basins from one another Runoff precipitation that moves across the ground to enter streams InfiltrationPercolation absorption and movement of precipitation or surface water into ground water Headwaters where streams begin Base Level endpoint of water or stream Discharge volume of water moving past a point in a stream in 1 second Q=WDV Q= discharge W=width D=depth V=velocity The fastest part of the stream is called the Thalweg There is more friction in wider, shallower streams Gradient= riserun Percent Slope= riserun x 100 The gradient is typically the steepest near the headwaters and the shallowest towards base level Energy changes from source to base level Affects sorting affects rate of downcutting or aggradation Traction Load (Bed Load) heavy debris rolled, pushed, or dragged across the stream floor Suspended Load material suspended by turbulence of the stream Dissolved Load material completely dissolved into the water Shape of stream is also related to the type of material being cut into Bedrock= steep sides Soft Sediments= Vshaped When riverstream velocity drops to zero, all remaining drops out and it forms a delta Progradation the river deposits sediments faster than the sea is able to remove them, so the delta grows outward into the sea Aggradation the river deposits build up via overbank flooding accumulation of biotic remains etc., it grows upward Transgression the retreat of the delta, usually by the loss of sediment caused by continued wave attack or the reduction of nourishment soils
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