HP 4200 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Risk Measure, Radiography, Particulates

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Principals of Epidemiology
Dr. Erin D. Bouldin & Dr. Mary Sheryl Horine
HP 4200-101
Fall Semester: August 16, 2016
Course Overview:
Review Syllabus/ ASUlearn
Office Hours are 10-11:30am Tuesday/Thursday
The Best way to be contacted is via email with a 48 business hours notice.
- Address as Dr. not professor
Assignments with the exception of exams are due on Thursday
- The class layout: Lecture on Tuesday, seminar on Thursday
On the class schedule the day the reading or assignment is listed is when it is
due, and they are always due at the start of class.
1st Exam is on September 29 (Chapters 1-6 and 9)
Final Exam is on December 5 from 3-5:30 (Chapters 6-10 and 12-13)
- There are only 2 exams for this semester
Introduction to Epidemiology Lecture 1
Learning Objectives:
1. Define Epidemiology (2)
2. How Epidemiology fits within the field of Public Health (1) & (3)
3. Components of Epidemiology (2)
4. Recognize Epidemiology in the popular press (3)
(1) What is Public Health?
1. Definition: The art, science and practice of protecting and improving the
health, physically, mentally, emotionally, and spiritually, of a community.
a) Health Promoters/Public Health Workers work with several
different groups of people.
i. Groups of people could be: neighborhoods, schools or school
systems, towns, cities, businesses, an individual, essentially they are
“populations” of people
ii. The below (1b) flow cart shows the different levels of
groups/populations and their influence level. Note that they go both ways
b) Society  Community  Organizational  Interpersonal 
Individual
2. Core Public Health Functions:
a) Diagram: Assessment (Includes “Monitor Health  Diagnose &
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Epidemiology Dr. Erin D.
Bouldin & Dr. Mary Sheryl Horine HP 4200-
101
August 16, 2016
Investigate”) Policy Development (Includes “Inform, Educate, Empower 
Develop Policies”) Assurance (Includes “Enforce Laws  Evaluate”)
b) At the center of this diagram is Research, each of these circles stem
from research.
c) Epidemiology fits primarily in the Assessment circles, however it
can be found playing a part in all of the sections and circles.
3. Levels of Prevention:
a) Diagram is based off of Leavall & Clark Model
b) Primary: This is when a disease or unhealthy behavior is first
introduced or has yet to be introduced to the group/population. It is the first
line of defense. (cheapest)
i. Examples include Vaccines, behavior change, removing
exposures, etc.
c) Secondary: This is the early identification stage, when the disease
of health behavior is confirmed in the group/population. It is the second
stage of defense. (Moderately expensive)
i. Examples include Screenings for cancer, X-rays, Quick
responses to diseases, etc.
d) Tertiary: This is the final stage of prevention during an advanced
disease stage. This is where often times specialist are needed. (Typically very
expensive)
i. Rehab to get better from the disease or to combat disease,
nutrition/fitness programs, surgery, etc.
(2) Epidemiology Defined: (Break down of the word from the Greek language)
a) Epi- on, upon or befall
b) Demos – people, populations
c) Logos – the study of ______.
d) Essentially it is the study of what falls upon/befalls/on the
people/populations. In this field this means diseases and other health
aliments.
i. The three key words here are Distribution and
Determinants and Application
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Principals of Epidemiology
Dr. Erin D. Bouldin & Dr. Mary Sheryl Horine
HP 4200-101
Fall Semester: August 16, 2016
ii. Distribution: how a disease travels across a group or
population of people. (This is considered Descriptive Epidemiology: figuring
out the whom, where, and when)
iii. Determinants: This is also known as a “risk factor” and is
the event or factor that can or does change the health of people or a
population.
* Difference between “Risk” & “At Risk”: Risk = measure
of probability for getting or having a disease or bad/good
health event. At Risk = When there is Zero probability
of getting a disease or a bad/good health event.
(3) Epidemiologic Studies:
a) Sub-fields of Epidemiology
i. Infectious Diseases Epi: looking into Agents, Vector, and
Transmission
ii. Chronic Diseases Epi: looking into Mechanisms, Behavior,
and Health Care Practice
iii. Environmental Epi: looking into Air Polution and any
Particulates in it, and Water Quality
iv. Social Epi: looking into Neighborhoods, Discrimination, and
SES, Wealth, Poverty
v. Genetic Epi: looking into Gene Code, Modifications,
Expression, and Gene-environment Interactions
b) How to search for Determinants
i. Based on Analytic Epidemiology involves studies. This leads
to Observational components (This includes descriptive then analytic
research) and finally it leads to Experimental components
c) Overview of different Epidemiological Studies (Cover in more detail
in later notes)
i. Observational Ecological Studies include: Ecological, Cross-
sectional, Cohort, Case-Control.
ii. Experimental Ecological Studies include: Randomized Trials
Summary:
a) There are several layers to Epidemiology, which is the study of the
determinants and distribution of diseases and other health risks/events.
b) The way that epidemiology and public health are related are
through the active research of the disease or health event and turning the research
into application for controlling the disease or health problem/event in the
population. (See Diagram below)
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