NUT 2202 Lecture 10: Outline 4 the Remarkable Body and Related Micronutrients

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NUT 2202
Laura Helena Mc Arthur

NUT 2202 Nutrition and Health The Remarkable Body and Related Micronutrients I. The Cellular Level of Organization A. Definition of "cell" – basic structural/ functional unit of life B. Definition of "cellular organelle" – microscopic structures in cell that perform different functions C. Basic needs of cells – calories, water, oxygen D. Basic functions of cells – cell division, cell growth, energy producer, insulin production, break down fats, export solid and gaseous waste, and absorb nutrients, E. Information about the nucleus, DNA, and genes  NUCLEUS IS LARGEST AND BIGGEST ORGANELLE has dub membrane to keep from being damaged 1. Genes and their functions – GENES FOUND ON DNA ARE ARCHITECTS OF BODY PROTEINS 2. Inborn errors of metabolism  GENE DEFECT—lead to birth defects and illness, ex. Sickle cell anemia, PKU F. Gene expression= job of gene F. Other cell organelles and their functions: 1. Mitochondria – membrane a. Function WHERE WE GET CALORIES ☺ 2. Golgi apparatus a. Function – “polish” protein after it’s made 3. Rough endoplasmic reticulum a. Function – construction site of making proteins 4. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum a. Function – make fatty acids and steroid hormones 5. Lysosomes a. Function-- body proteins  amino acids for recycling II. The Tissue, Organ, and Organ System Levels of Organization A. Definition of "tissue"—collection of cells 1. Types and functions of selected tissues a. Muscle tissue 1. Function a. Cardiac muscle – heart muscles b. Smooth muscle – lines GI tract, internal organs, CONTRACTION c. Skeletal muscle -- MOVEMENT b. Blood tissue 1. Function – RBC – deliver oxygen and nutrients throughout body; WBC- immune system c. Fat tissue 1. Function – Adipose, keep fat soluble vitamins in storage, INSULATION d. Nerve tissue 1. Function – COMMUNICATE with muscle e. Bone tissue 1. Function – perform physical activity, stand up, MUST eat decent diet to have healthy bones ** Can build bone density until age 29 ** B. Definition of "organ" -- 1. Types and functions of selected organs a. Heart 1. Function – death can be determined by heart not working anymore; CONTAINS muscle, nerve, connective tissue; LOTS OF PROTEIN in it; PUMP OXYGEN AND NUTRIENTS THROUGHOUT BODY AND GET RID OF CO 2 b. Liver 1. Function – SYNTHESIZES BILE—digest food fat; stores stuff, breaks down, MAKES VITAMIN D c. Kidneys 1. Function – FILTRATION of blood, CONSERVATION of nutrients (ex. Glucose), MAKE VITAMIN D d. Pancreas 1. Function – PRODUCE INSULIN and GLUCOGON, Blood sugar regulation, Enzymes break down foods into nutrients e. Skin 1. Funtion – PROTECTIVE BARRIER f. Brain – “head quarters” 1. Function a. Sense of hunger b. Sense of satiety C. Definition of organ system 1. Types and functions of selected organ systems a. Cardiovascular system 1. Function – pump blood throughout body b. Digestive system 1. Function a. Digest food: mechanical, enzymatic, and chemical b. Absorb nutrients c. Store waste d. Excrete waste c. Respiratory system 1. Function – breathing d. Nervous system 1. Function – brain and all nerves, COMMUNICATION e. Immune system 1. Function – FIGHTING FOREIGN INVADERS Review of Cells, Tissues, and Organs _________________________________________________________________ Term Description _________________________________________________________________ 1 Organelle where amino acids are linked to make proteins - ROUGH ER 2 Largest organelle in cell - NUCLEUS 3 Organelle where milk sugar is synthesized - GOLGI 4 Organelle where calories are generated from fat and carbohydrate - MITOCHONDRIA 5 Organelle where proteins are dismantled - LYSOMES 6 Organelle where fatty acids are synthesized - SMOOTH ER 7 Organelle where DNA is housed - NUCLEUS 8 Structures comprising DNA - GENES 9 Tissue that sends messages to muscles - NERVOUS TISSUE 10 Tissue that transports nutrients and wastes - BLOOD TISSUE 11 Tissue that performs contractions - MUSCLE TISSUE 12 Organ that synthesizes bile - LIVER 13 Organ that filters blood to eliminate toxins - KIDNEY 14 Organ that synthesizes digestive enzymes - PANCREAS 15 Organ that synthesizes many body proteins - LIVER _________________________________________________________________ VII. The Digestive Tract (GI tract) A. Definition of the "digestive tract" – WHERE DIGESTION AND ABSOPRTION OCCURS; Digestion breaks down foods to give nutrients a. Mechanical Digestion—grinding teeth and muscles along GI tract b. Chemical Digestion—Hydrochloric acid, Bile c. Enzymatic Digestion—MAIN WAY B. Names and functions of structures comprising the digestive tract (GI tract) 1. Mouth—1 STRUCTURE OF Digestion a. Function: Chew food, secrete saliva, digestion b. Terms: chewing; saliva; food bolus; starch digestion c. Types of digestion performed: * Mechanical digestion of protein, fat, and carbohydrates * Enzymatic digestion of starch 2. Pharynx a. Function-- swallow without choking b. Terms: swallowing; food bolus 3. Esophagus a. Function – travel food to stomach b. Terms: travel; food bolus c. Peristalsis  contraction of smooth muscles (MOVE BOLUS TO STOMACH) 4. Stomach a. Function – receives food bolus, DIGEST FOOD, MOVE FOOD OUT OF STOMACH INTO SMALL INTESTINE b. Terms: processing; peristalsis; food bolus; semiliquid chyme, hydrochloric acid (HCl) solid bolus goes to semiliquid chyme which happens through peristalsis  contraction of smooth muscles c. Types of digestion performed: * mechanical digestion of protein, fat, and carbohydrate * enzymatic digestion of protein and fat * chemical digestion of protein—hydrochloric acid 5. Small intestine a. Function – DIGESTION, ABSORPTION, and REMOVE WASTE b. Terms: digestion; absorption; semiliquid chyme; enzymes; segmentation food becomes nutrients become enzymes and bile ** SEGMENTATION smooth muscle contracting in small intestine c. Types of digestion performed: * mechanical digestion of protein, fat, and carbohydrate * enzymatic digestion of protein, fat, and carbohydrate * chemical digestion of fat 6. Large intestine or colon a. Function – Absorption, making vitamins, Export waste b. Terms: colon; absorption; waste; bacteria 7. Rectum a. Function – Absorption of water, storage of waste, export of waste b. Terms: storage; waste; absorption 8. Anus a. Function – eliminate waste b. Terms: excretion; waste; voluntary muscle C. Definition of "sphincter" and names of sphincters -- valve that opens and closes 1. Upper esophageal sphincter a. Location – top of GI tract b. Function -- 2. Cardiac sphincter or lower esophageal sphincter a. Location—bottom of tube connecting lower part of esophagus to stomach b. Function – lets solid bolus of food out of esophagus into stomach 3. Pyloric sphincter a. Location – bottom of the stomach, between stomach and small intestine b. Function – allows chyme into stomach 4. Ileocecal sphincter a. Location – end of small intestine, connect small intestine to large intestine b. Function – opens to allow waste to leave small intestine and go to large intestine D. Segments of the small intestine 1. Duodenum * Chyme from stomach * Bile from gallbladder * Enzymes from the pancreas * Sodium bicarbonate from pancreas a. Location – connected to stomach by pyloric sphincter b. Function – receives stuff, food digestion, nutrient absorption, transportation to jejunum 2. Jejunum a. Location – middle segment of small intestine, b. Function – where most of digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place 3. Ileum a. Location – connects to large intestine, b. Function – ABSORB VITAMIN B12 HERE!!!! E. Important ducts associated with the digestive tract 1. Common bile duct a. Function – carries bile from liver to duodenum 2. Pancreatic duct a. Function – pancreas to duodenum  sodium bicarbonate, enzymes F. Accessory organs of the digestive tract 1. Liver a. Function –BILE SYNTHESIS 2. Gallbladder a. Function – STORAGE OF BILE 3. Pancreas a. Function – GIVES ENZYMES AND SODIUM BICARBONATE Review of the Digestive Tract and Digestive System _________________________________________________________________ Term Description _________________________________________________________________ 1 Segment of small intestine nearest to the stomach -Duodenum 2 Accessory organ that synthesizes bile - Liver 3 Duct that carries digestive enzymes to small intestine - Pancreatic 4 Accessory organ that stores bile - Gal Bladder 5 Travel tube for food bolus - Esophagus 6 Sphincter linking esophagus to stomach - Lower esophageal sphincter 7 Accessory organ that synthesizes digestive enzymes - Pancreas 8 Sphincter linking stomach to small intestine - Pyloric Sphincter 9 Storage site for waste - Rectum 10 Solid bite of food - Bolus 11 Segment of small intestine where most digestion occurs - Jejunum 12 Organ that changes solid bolus into semiliquid chyme - Stomach _________________________________________________________________ F. Primary tasks of the digestive tract (GI tract) 1. Food digestion a. Mechanical digestion b. Enzymatic digestion c. Chemical digestion 3. Nutrient absorption a. Fat-soluble vitamins- A, D, K b. Water Soluble Vitamins, B and C c. Water 4. Storage of waste a. Colon, rectum 5. Excretion of waste a. Anus G. Three kinds and sites of food digestion 1. Mechanical digestion a. Description – chew
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