NUT 2202 Lecture 4: Outline 2 with Images Nutrition Tools Standards and Guidelines and Related Micronutrients

15 Pages
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Department
Nutrition
Course Code
NUT 2202
Professor
Laura Helena Mc Arthur

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Description
NUT 2202 Nutrition and Health Nutrition Tools: Standards and Guidelines and Related Micronutrients Nutrient Recommendations I. Definition and formulation A. Definition of a nutrient recommendation: ESTIMATED AMOUNTS OF MACRO AND MICRO NUTRIENTS that will support optimum body functioning and good health 1. The macronutrients are protein, carbs, fats, water 2. The micronutrients are minerals and vitamins B. Basis for making nutrient recommendations II. Reasons for Issuing Nutrient Recommendations A. Counseling individuals in clinical settings B. Issuing guidelines for the public C. Planning school meals D. Developing guidelines for food assistance programs – INCOME BASED III. Types of Research Conducted to Formulate Nutrient Recommendations A. Experimental - FUNCTION of nutrients -HOW MUCH we need of nutrients to perform functions B. Clinical - STUDY SYMPTOMS- deficiency and toxicity - Adequacy – bones, muscles, nerves, blood clots C. Survey -QUESTIONARRE and INTERVIEW - CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, KNOWLEDGE, BELIEFS - Ex. Kids are not getting enough Calcium because breaking lots of bones D. Epidemiological - ENORMOUS STUDIES- millions of people - RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOOD AND CHRONIC DISEASE IV. Steps of the Scientific Method A. Step 1: Read all available information published about the topic of interest a. EX: Vitamin E and endurance among cyclers i. Will Vitamin E supplements increase endurance among cyclers? B. Step 2: Write one or more UNBIASED research questions related to the topic of interest 1. Definition of unbiased – no judgment, no pre-conceived opinion a. Does taking 100 mg of Vitamin E everyday for 6 weeks increase endurance of cyclists? C. Step 3: Write one UNBIASED study hypothesis for each study question 1. Definition of a hypothesis- predict to the answer; educated guess D. Step 4: Design an UNBIASED protocol to collect data for testing the study hypothesis 1. Definition of protocol: a procedure! Step by step ☺ 2. Definition of data: information collected a. Examples of quantitative data – amount (ex. Numbers, graphs) b. Examples of qualitative data – open-ended questions; characteristics, traits, asking questions to cyclists 3. Example of a protocol: Recipe a. Subject recruitment -- Get 75 cyclists, only women b. Treatment administered – different groups c. Measurements made -- amount of Vitamin given to each group d. Analysis of collected data – have them cycle for however many minutes a day, 5 days a week, measure endurance E. Step 5: Obtain permission to carry out the study -- ETHICS 1. Institutional Review Board (IRB) F. Step 6: Carry out the study as specified in the protocol. G. Step 7: Analyze the collected quantitative and qualitative data as specified in the protocol H. Step 8: Write a manuscript containing the following sections: 1. Introduction – background, summary of studies already done 2. Protocol – procedure 3. Results – information collected 4. Discussion – tell reader whether findings supported hypothesis or not? Limitations? Strengths of study? 5. Reference list – bibliography for articles used in Step 1 I. Send manuscript to a professional journal for peer review 1. Definition of a professional journal – collection of research 2. Definition of peer review – do for quality control. Keep garbage out of journals Review of the Scientific Method _________________________________________________________________ Term Description _______________________________________________________ 1 Educated guess regarding study findings - Hypothesis 2 Research that studies knowledge, beliefs, behavior, - Survey 3 Research that studies very large samples - Epidemiological 4 Committee that gives permission to do a study -IRB, Institutional Review Book 5 Synonymous with predisposition - Bias 6 e.g. of qualitative data - What’s your favorite color? 7 e.g. of quantitative data - How many ounces of water do you drink daily? -Blood glucose levels 8 Synonymous with methodology or procedure - Protocol 9 Process of manuscript evaluation by others - Peer Review _________________________________________________________________ V. The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) – ONE EXAMPLE OF NUTRIENT RECOMMENDATIONS A. Definition and formulation – estimated amount of nutrients needed to sustain life; based on science B. Purpose of the DRIs – help consumers choose a healthy diet C. Age categories of DRIs – birth to 6 months, 6 months to a year, toddlers, school age, adolescence, adult men and women, pregnant women, breast-feeding mothers a. Categorized by age too D. The DRIs are not intended for specific population groups – intended for healthy people E. The DRIs include a margin of safety to prevent nutrient toxicity 1. Definition of nutrient toxicity (hemochromatosis is iron toxicity) F. Categories of DRIs 1. Estimated average requirements (EARs): meet nutrient needs of HALF the population 2. Recommended dietary allowances (RDAs): meet needs of 97-98% of people in a group 3. Adequate intakes (AIs): amount of nutrient that’s supposed to meet needs of an age and gender group; EX. Adolescent boys/girls… AIs = temporary 4. Tolerable upper intake levels (ULs): prevent toxicity, protect people! G. Examples of DRIs 1. Total carbohydrate 45% to 65% of daily Kcals 2. Total fat 20% to 35% of daily Kcals 3. Saturated fat < 10% of daily Kcals 4. Trans fat 0% of daily Kcals 5. Protein 10% to 35% of daily Kcals VI. The Daily Values (DVs) A. Definition and formulation – nutrient recommendation, difference between DRI and VS… don’t distinguish between gender and ages… CALORIE DEPENDENT a. Found on food label, DVs in footnote B. Some of the DVs encourage consumers to consume more of some food ingredients, e.g., a. MORE fiber, potassium C. Some of the DVs encourage consumers to consume less of other food ingredients, e.g., a. LESS saturated fat, sodium, sugar D. Location of the DVs E. Examples of DVS for a 2,000 Kcal daily diet 1. Total fat = 65 gms/day a. 65 gms/day amounts to 585 Kcals, which is 29% of a 2,000 Kcal daily diet * 65 gms X 9 Kcals/gm = 585 Kcals * 585 Kcals / 2,000 Kcals = 29% 2. Saturated fat = 20 gms/day a. 20 gms/day amounts to 180 Kcals, which is 9% of a 2,000 Kcal daily diet * 20 gms X 9 Kcals/gm = 180 Kcals * 180 Kcals / 2,000 Kcals = 9% 3. Trans fat = zero gms/day a. This is equal to 0% of a 2,000 Kcal daily diet 4. Cholesterol = < 300 mgs/day 5. Fiber = 25 gms/day * 6. Sodium = 2,400 mgs/day for healthy people * For people with hypertension < 1,500 mgs/day * 7. Potassium = 3,500 mgs/day for healthy people * For people with hypertension 4,700 mgs/day 8. Vitamin C = 60 mgs/day 9. Calcium = 1,000mgs/day Review of DRIs and DVs ______________________________________________________ Term Description ____________________________________________________________ 1 Found on footnotes of food labels -Daily values 2 DRI when insufficient data are available for RDA -AI (adequate intake) 3 DRI covers 98% of a group - RDA 4 DRI covers 50% of a group - EAR (estimated average requirement) 5 DRI higher for hypertensives - Potassium 6 DRI lower for hypertensives - Sodium 7 DRI is 0% of daily Kcals - Trans Fat 8 DRIs not intended for which group - Malnourished, people’s whose bodies use nutrient too fast/slow 9 DRI is 45% to 65% of daily Kcals - Carbohydrate 10 DV is 65 gms/day for 2,000 Kcal diet -Total Fat ____________________________________________________________ 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs) (USDA) I. Introduction A. Intended audience and purposes of the DGAs – healthy people 2 years old and older 1. Risk factors for chronic diseases a. Elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BPs) Normal and Elevated Blood Pressures for Adults ________________________________________________________________ Status Systolic Diastolic _______________________________________________________ Normal <120 mmHg <80 mmHg Prehypertension 120-139 mmHg 80-89 mmHg Hypertension >=140 mmHg >=90 mmHg _________________________________________________________________ b. Elevated body mass index (BMI) Classification of Body Weight by BMI _________________________________________________________________ Weight Category BMI _________________________________________________________________ Underweight < 18.5 kg/m2 Normal weight 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2 Overweight 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2 Obese >= 30.0 kg/m2 Morbid obesity >= 40 kg/m2 _________________________________________________________________ d. High fasting blood glucose concentration – heart attack, blood disease Normal and Elevated Fasting Blood Glucose Concentrations _________________________________________________________________ Status Value _________________________________________________________________ Normal 70-100 mg/dL Prediabetes 101-125 mg/dL Diabetes >= 126 mg/dL __________________________________________________________________ e. High fasting concentration of total cholesterol (TL-c)- above 200 mg/dL of fasting blood f. High fasting concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) - g. High fasting concentration of triglycerides (FAT) (TAGs)- 150 mg/dL h. Low fasting concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) – below 40 mg/dL i. High waist circumference – apple shape vs pear shape body, take tape measure and measure Men- 40” or more… risk for type 2 diabetes and heart disease Women- 35” or more… risk for type 2 diabetes and heart disease Pear= fat around butt and upper thigh j. Sedentary lifestyles—risk factor for gaining weight, obesity  hypertension, heart disease, strokes 2. Chronic diseases related to unhealthy diets and sedentary lifestyles a. Atherosclerosis- thinning of blood vessel. Can lead to stroke or heart attack 3. The seven warning signs of
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