NUT 2202 Lecture 7: Outline 3 Hunger and the Global Environment and Related Micronutrients

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Department
Nutrition
Course
NUT 2202
Professor
Laura Helena Mc Arthur
Semester
Spring

Description
NUT 2202 Nutrition and Health Hunger and the Global Environment and Related Micronutrients I. Terms Related to Food Insecurity A. Hunger or food insecurity – household shortage of basic food 1. Acute hunger acute hunger can lead to starvation symptoms 2. Chronic hunger – LONG TERM chronic hunger can lead to starvation symptoms B. Very low food security (severe food insecurity) • Quantity and quality of food is low • One or more people might not eat that day • The parents are the one’s who won’t eat C. Low food security (less severe food insecurity) • Adequate amount of food in household, 3 meals a day • Quality, variety, and desirability low • Refined grains D. Marginal food security (occasional food insecurity) • Have quantity, quality, desirability of food • WORRIED and ANXIOUS going to run out of food • No job security  FOOD SECURE (highest rank) • Regular access to a safe and nutritious food supply for all members of family E. Starvation – WHAT YOU FEEL BECAUSE YOU HAVEN’T EATEN Hunger leads to starvation 1. Symptoms of starvation: A. Stunted linear growth in children b. Low stores of macronutrients and micronutrients lead to deficiency -Symptoms c. Muscle and fat tissue wasting d. Often feel cold e. Become irritable f. Become quiet and show few physical motions g. Enzymes are in short supply h. GI lining deteriorates  Regular INFECTIONS  DIARRHEA & DEHYDRATION DEATH F. Famine - widespread and extreme food shortage in an area, leads to very low food security  starvation  death 1. Natural causes of famine: drought, earthquake, tsunami, hurricane, 2. Human causes of famine: WAR, politics G. World food supply H. Food banks – facility that collects food donations to authorized organizations I. Food pantries – for food insecure people to pick up food to take home J. Emergency kitchens – where you go and sit down and eat on site, for food insecure people, FREE MEAL K. Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) -- bleach with water overnight. Water on top is clean, and bottom is dirt… salt and sugar helps rehydrate people who have infections L. Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) – high calorie paste to help malnourished people, contain carbs, protein, lipids… rapid weight gain and replace reserves of micronutrients M. Sustainable use of natural resources – Breastfeeding can be a LIFESAVER N. Hidden hunger – hunger that you cannot see II. Related Micronutrients READ TEXTBOOK A. Iron – most common micronutrient deficiency world wide bc difficult to absorb and get into blood. 1. Type of nutrient category – MINERAL 2. Sources of iron a. Sources of heme iron – from animals, hemoglobin, “blood iron” b. Sources of nonheme iron – animals and plants, lagoon 3. Functions of iron – make healthy red blood cells, iron carried on hemoglobin, makes myoglobin, gets you calories from foods you eat 4. Deficiency symptoms: hypochromic and microcytic red blood cells  Fatigue, anemia- cold, headaches, finger nails change (spoon-like), RBC lowers and are microcytic, hypochromic microcytic red blood cells 5. Toxicity symptoms—18 mg of iron for adult, constipation, nausea, B. Iodine 1. Type of nutrient category – MINERAL 2. Sources of iodine – salt, salt water fish, shellfish, veggies grown in iodine soil, milk, 3. Functions of iodine – thyroxin hormone to regulate metabolism  burning calories 4. Deficiency symptoms—hypothyroidism, babies and children small, restricted physical growth, deafness, goiter 5. Toxicity symptoms—RARE, C. Vitamin A 1. Type of nutrient category – Fat-soluble vitamins 2. Sources of vitamin A – plants and animals, beta keratin, a. Carotenoids come from plants – carrots, squash, orangey type fruits/veggies, pumpkin, papaya b. Retinoids come from animals – think of retina of eye, butter, egg yolk, fatty fish, liver 3. Functions of vitamin A * Functions as retinoids a. Anti-infective vitamin b. Vision in dim light opsin protein + retinal  rhodopsin c. Normal reproduction d. Healthy bones e. Cell differentiation f. Normal growth g. Protein synthesis h. Immune system function i. RBC synthesis * Function as carotenoids a. Antioxidants prevent oxidative damage caused by free radicals 4. Deficiency symptoms a. Xerophthalmia – Blindness 5. Toxicity symptoms – bacterial and viral infectionweight loss, severe headache, dry skin, nausea, vomiting, a. Retinoic acid syndrome – HURTS THE BABY, birth defect to ears and heart, D. Zinc 1. Type of nutrient category – MINERAL 2. Sources of zinc – animals 3. Functions of zinc – needed for normal growth and development, protein synthesis, sexual maturation, wound healing, 4. Deficiency symptoms – wounds don’t heal as fast and as well, making of some proteins slow down, weakened immune system acrodermatitis in infant 5. Toxicity symptoms—slowed down and decreased copper absorption, lowers HDL Review of Micronutrient Disorders World-Wide:
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