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Lecture 7

PSY 2213 Lecture 7: Sept. 28 and Oct. 3 Lecture 8

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Appalachian State University
PSY 2213
Andrew Smith

Sept. 28 Lecture Self-Justification • cognitive dissonance : discomfort cause by performing an action that goes against one’s self of esteem • that causes the spreading of alternatives ◦ dissonance • what dissonance are people trying to reduce ◦ i made a good decision….right? • who is dissonance reduced? ◦ focus on the positives of the chosen ◦ focus on the negatives of the rejected • when people want and like things, they work hard to get them ◦ when we work hard for things, we have to justify our efforts. This can change our attitude (cognitions) • Arson and Mills ◦ this study involves a group discussion about sex. (no initiated, mild and severe) to be in the group, you have to read these words: sec-related but not explicit words sexually explicit words everyone participates in the group discussion asked how interesting was the discussion, etc. • Severe imitation led to increased interest and stuff • Why did severe initiation lead to increased liking ◦ dissonance, of course • What were dissonant thoughts? ◦ i wouldn't go through this embarrassing imitations for nothing… right? • How was dissonance reduced? ◦ i went thought the embarrassing initiation because this group is • Appreciation of Children ◦ all the participants are parents kids cost _ but there is also a benefit kids care going to cost _ • Dissonance Summary ◦ in order to justify past behavior, we often change our attitudes then task wasn’t so boring mad max is a fantastic movie this group is awesome being a parent is great • Attitudes do fluctuate based on: ◦ available information ◦ information focus ◦ mood ◦ many other things… October 3, 2016 Social Psychology in the Real World • Cognitive dissonance and applying for jobs ◦ when rejected from a job, for example, focus on the negative aspects ◦ people focus on different information ◦ movie example • Festinger and Carlsmith ◦ study about lying, like the task more even though they were paid lest ◦ severe initiation makes people like things more (different study) • Trend of doing worst things and thinking about the negatives causes people to increase their appreciation • when will dissonance lead to attitude change? ◦ when there is no or minimal external justification i lied and only got paid $1 no way for them to rationalize lying, so they change their behavior ◦ when we feel responsible for our actions i didn’t have to write this essay 1 people are either subtly encouraged to write essay about why it is a good idea to raise college tuition 2 not everyone encouraged, another group encouraged 2.1 result: the people who were encouraged to write the essay, believed / more in favor of raising college tuition ◦ When we can’t change our behavior i’m stuck with this photo and can’t exchange it stuck with it so they had to adjust their attitude ◦ when we attribute our negative feeling (dissonance) to attitude-discrepant behavior actually relates to some of the research before on emotions misattribution of arousal 1 might attribute emotions to the wrong thing (bridge and men experiment) • summary of dissonance: ◦ our behavior can influence our attitudes • Three ways of reducing dissonance ◦ change behavior, change attitude, add cognitions • Dissonance will lead to attitude change when: ◦ no external justification ◦ we feel responsible for our actions ◦ we can’t change our behavior ◦ we attribute dissonance to our behavior • attitudes formed through dissonance are “real" • Final thoughts on dissonance ◦ thinking about negatives only increases liking if you are “stuck" often, easiest way to get behavior in like with attitudes is change behavior ◦ cognitive dissonance can be good alters us when we need to change our behavior to match our attitudes
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