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Lecture 4

PSY 2213 Lecture 4: Psych Lecture 4 Sep. 7

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Andrew Smith

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Review • above average effects ◦ motivated explanations self serving motives idiosyncratic construal ◦ cognitive explanation egocentrism • Below average effects ◦ easy things, people feel like they are good at it so they are better than average ◦ slightly more difficult task, people feel like they are bad at it, worst than average egocentric (how good we are and ignore how ) • Summary ◦ peoples perceptions are influenced by their self serving motivations ◦ Peoples perceptions are ALSO influenced by their cognitive mechanisms that is, how they process information ◦ what initially appears to be motivational might have cognitive explanation be aware when trying to de bias people • motivated vs cognitive ◦ motivated explanation = we intentionally think we are about average to make ourselves feel better • Cognitive explanation = we think we are above average because of the way we process information ◦ might even be automatic ◦ people can’t help but processing information in an egocentric way Lecture • two kinds of thinking ◦ automatic: thinking that is effortless, involuntary, unintentional, and sometimes non conscious ◦ controlled: thinking that is effortful , deliberate, i intentional, and voluntary controlled can become automatic • Automatic thinking witch schemas ◦ schemas: mental “structures” people use to organize their knowledge about the social world categorizing sorta ◦ schemas can be"' simple: walk into a restaurant and - wait to be seated or sit down / order complex: men are like…. women are like…. schemas to do with social groups are basically a sterotype ◦ schemas influence what people notice, think about and remember whatever schema is activated, we make extra assumptions, our memories are not perfectly accurate so we reconstruct there memories all the time and we might fill in gaps or make mistakes ◦ schemas help us make sense of the world help reduce things not clear -ambiguity ◦ important when information can be interpreted in a number of way when trying to interpret unclear behavior - might use schemas ◦ fill int eh fans in our knowledge and memory • Schemas as memory Guides ◦ participants read a story that end with a man either proposing to a woman or raping her ◦ in a memory test two weeks later, people misremembered details consistent with the activated the schema besides the fact that they misremembered things, they did it in a predictable way ◦ Proposal schema: jack wanted to give barbra to meet his parents jack gave barbara a dozen roses ◦ Rape Schema jack liked to drink jack was unpopular with women • both ideas were not in the story but whatever schema activated, used to help aide memories • people use schemas that are applicable and accessible ◦ applicability: how well the schema “fits” the situation ex. researchers forced them to use rape or proposal ◦ accessibility: how readily people to think about a schema going to use schemas that are more accessible chronically accessibility: concepts that are important to you, always interpret behavior in that way they are use to always use these immediately apply those schemas temporarily: just talking about it and then influence you some what ◦ Chronically accessible schemas: schemas that are constantly active and ready to use to interpret amnigous situations example: imagine brother is alcoholic you see a m an acting strange not eh bus how do you interpret his behavior is he drunk or suffering from mental illness? would you interpretation change if your brother suffered from a mental illness ◦ Temporarily accessible schemas (priming) schemas that have been recently made active they have been primed example right before getting onto the bus, you are talking about drunk people at the bar you see the man acting strange on the bus how do you interpret behavior? would it change if you were just talking about mental illness ◦ Priming Schmal for Donald participants completed two “unrelated” studies ◦ Part 1: Participants memorized a list of words some learned words related to being reckless or careless others learned words related to be assertive / confident ◦ Part 2: Participants read about Donald and answered a bunch of questions about donald researchers wanted to know how people would describe donald compared to how they were primed • when does priming work? ◦ Behavior must be ambiguous (open to multiple interpretations) ◦ Primed schema must be applicable priming respectful vs. disrespectful wouldn’t influence perceptions of donalds recklessness Summary • schemas are often useful - helpful to reduce ambiguity • schemas can influence our memory • schemas can influence our perceptions • we automatically apply schemas that are applicable ◦ people aren’t going to be like I’m going to apply these words to donald • interpretations are persistent ◦ personality test - introvert / extrovert you can come up with instances that would suggest introvert and extrovert and then people still justified themselves as either introvert or extroverted because they just thought of all these exa
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