SD 3100 Lecture 1: Agroecology notes-- ALL SEMESTER

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Sustainable Development
SD 3100
Richard David Rheingans

SECOND HALF NOTES THURSDAY APRIL 27th FARM DAY **missed class** TUESDAY APRIL 25th ***missed class*** THURSDAY APRIL 20th ***missed class*** TUESDAY APRIL 18th -- easter break -- THURSDAY APRIL 13th ~Landscape diversity: Agroecosystem and natural ecosystem interactions~ TUESDAY APRIL 11th ***missed class*** THURSDAY APRIL 6th-- class cancelled TUESDAY APRIL 4th ~Diversity & Disturbance: Animals - Do we need them? They play important roles… - Can we sustain ag without them? Yes but it’s more difficult without them Positive roles of animals - Consume autotrophs, turning biomass into useful forms and return waste to feed many (micro)organisms and eventually plants - Turn ‘waste’ and biomass into food (pigs, chickens) - Farm animals help to enhance ecological integrity and stability, increase energy efficiency, and diversify income opportunities Function of animals in nature - Shape vegetation structure and species abundance,distribution, and diversity through selective grazing habits, differential timing of grazing, and moving of plant propagules - Animals enable the energy flow through the ecosystem ~~~~ Domestication ~~~ Grazing & pasture systems - THURSDAY MARCH 30th ~Disturbance and succession~ - Difference btwn stress and disturbance: stress is constant exposure to a limiting or adverse condition - Disturbance is an incidental adverse event - Effect of disturbance depends on: - Frequency of disturbance (time dimension) - Scale of disturbance (spatial dimension) - Intensity/severity - Following disturbance, there will be a process of recovery (healing) = ecological succession: process of ecosystem development whereby distinct changes occur in community structure and function over time. It is similar, but not identical, to colonization - Primary succession = ? - Secondary succession = ? - Creating intermediate disturbances - Set you back close to the beginning of a natural disturbance but not quite - Analogs of successional processes: - Leaving or (re)introducing trees on the farm poses a number of challenges, such as: - Competition for light, nutrients, water, space - Habitat & food for perhaps unwanted organisms - Psychological barriers - Social ostracism - TUESDAY MARCH 28th ***missed class*** THURSDAY MARCH 23rd ***missed class*** TUESDAY MARCH 21st ~Genetic Resources & Sustainability~ - Genotype → genetics of an organism - Phenotype → observable characteristics, expression of genetics - Adaptation → adjustment or changes in behavior, physiology and structure of an organism to become more suited to a specific environment - Variation - Genotypic: mutation, sexual reproduction, polyploidy (instead of genetic material splitting-- chromosomes don’t split..?) - Phenotypic: come from these^ or from reactions to the environment - Natural Selection - Directed Selection: directed by humans for traits they desire to increase a species’ usefulness - Mass selection: choosing the most vigorous/productive plants and using their seeds (which ones are growing the best) - Pure line selection (selecting individuals that have the characteristics you want- breed back together for increased population of certain characteristic...) - POLYPLOID PLANTS - Larger cells and often larger plants - *** - Genetic engineering ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- FIRST HALF NOTES THURSDAY JAN 20 ~The plant in Agroecology~ - Autecology: ecology of self - Plants are the basis of all life - autotrophic - Photosynthesis*** (know this process for exam) - C-3 plants, C-4 plants, CAM plants - Where are these more common and why?*** - Crop Plant Domestication and Evolution - Corn, 21% of our global nutrition, has been around for about 9,000 years - Beans, 17% of our protein, originated in mesoamerica, domesticated about 8,000 yrs ago - Carbon Partitioning, how the plant allocates the sugar it is producing among its tissues - 95% of a plant is carbon and oxygen - 5% are key nutrients, macro and micro MACRO - Nitrogen, small fraction of overall weight of plants, needed in large amounts but commonly deficient - Yellowing of the plant signals not enough N - Phosphorus, absorbed as phosphates by the roots, important compound in many compounds within the plant - Potassium, not a structural or enzymatic actor in plants - Regulates the ionic environment in cells and affects osmotic processes - Inadequate amounts can lead to root rot, wilting and increased disease - Others.., not as essential as ^^^ (NPK) TUESDAY JANUARY 24th ~LIGHT~ (Ch. 4) - Photosynthetically Active Radiation - How much is used depends on: light quality, intensity, period - How does topography affect light? THURSDAY JANUARY 26th ~Temperature~ - Variations across Earth (what causes them) - Latitude, Seasonal, Altitude, Weather variability, Human impact, Vegetation, Aspect TUESDAY JANUARY 31st **Missed class** THURSDAY FEBRUARY 2nd ~WIND~ - Air in natural motion, as that moving horizontally and at any velocity along the earth’s surface - Effects of wind on living organisms - Exerts a force on plants & animals - Transport particles & materials - Mixes the atmosphere immediately surrounding organisms to
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