The two skulls above come from the same archaeological site. They lived and were buried in the same dune but never knew each other; they lived 5,000 years apart. You can stare at these skulls and see they are quite different. In this module we discuss modern human variation and the various ways people have struggled with understanding and explaining the great diversity our species exhibits. We will cover adaptations to climate, the history of race and race science in western thought, the analysis of human remains from archaeological contexts, and applied forensic anthropological research. Now that we have discussed the evolution of anatomically modern humans, we can look at patterns of human variation in the present. In this module we look at modern human variation within the realm of a discussion on human races. We place the discussion of race within its historical context and view racial biology as one form of scientific analysis that conflates biology and behavior.