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BIO 181 (27)

Lecture on Cells

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Arizona State University
BIO 181
Kenneth Mossman

Cells  Cell theory- all organisms are made up of cells, and all cells come from a preexisting cell  Implications- because of cells coming from preexisting cells, all individuals in a population of single-celled organisms are related by common ancestry; the same goes for multi-cellular organisms  Structure = Function  2 broad groups based on structural features:  Prokaryotes, which lack a membrane-bound nucleus  Eukaryotes, which have a membrane-bound nucleus  Prokaryotic Cells (“before nucleus”)  Surrounded by plasma membrane enclosing cytoplasm  Tough cell wall, protects and gives shape  No organelles  Most have one circular chromosome o Nucleoid region  Flagella  Ribosomes- protein synthesis  Some prokaryotes are supported by a cytoskeleton o Protein filaments  Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes  Eukaryotic chromosomes are membrane-bound o Nucleus  Eukaryotic cells are much larger (about 10x)  Eukaryotic cells have organelles and a lot of internal membrane  Eukaryotic cells have a diverse and dynamic cytoskeleton  In Eukaryotic cells, an organelle’s membrane and enzymes it contains correlate with its function  The type, size, and number of organelles in a Eukaryotic cells usually correlates with the cell’s overall function  Eukaryotic cells  Large size makes it difficult for molecules to diffuse across the entire cell; this problem is partly solved by breaking up the large volume into organelles  Compartmentalization aids efficiency in chemical reactions  Centrioles only in animal cells  Cell wall and chloroplasts only in plant cells  Nucleus o Surrounded by nuclear envelope, which is a double membrane  Outermost membrane connects to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) o Chromosomes o Synthesis of RNA in nucleolus o Nuclear pores  Spaces in membrane that allow certain molecules and substances through  Controlled passage through membrane o mRNAs and ribosomes synthesized in nucleus then go to cytoplasm o proteins like transcription factors and histones synthesized in cytoplasm and go into nucleus o movement through the membrane requires energy o proteins destined for
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