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BIO 181 (27)

Lecture on DNA

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Arizona State University
BIO 181
Kenneth Mossman

DNA  Nucleic Acids  Polymers of nucleotide building blocks  When assembled, they form ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) o Most RNA are single-stranded o Most DNA are double-stranded  Except viruses, most living organisms utilize both RNA and DNA  Nucleotide  Phosphate group, sugar group (ribose), and nitrogenous base  Phosphate group is the critical linkage site for nucleotide polymerization o Use of phosphate group is unique and gives nucleic acids an overall negative charge  The sugar is a pentose (five-carbon) sugar called ribose in ribonucleotides and deoxyribose in deoxyribonucleotides o Deoxyribose has a missing hydroxyl group off of the 2’ carbon  Nitrogenous bases contribute unique chemical porperties to each type of nucleotide o Pyrimidine (small) bases include cytosine (C), uracil (U), and thyamine (T) o Purine (big) bases include guanine (G) and adenine (A) o DNA uses ATCG’s and RNA uses AUCG’s  Nucleotide polymerization  Involves formation of special covalent bonds called phosphodiester bonds between the phosphate group on the 5’ carbon of one nucleotide and the –OH group on the 3’ carbon of another nucleo
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