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Lecture 4

CDE 232 Lecture 4: Chapter 4 Lecture Notes (Infancy)

5 Pages
14 Views
Fall 2017

Department
Child Development
Course Code
CDE 232
Professor
Rajni Nair
Lecture
4

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Infancy: 3-18 moths
Normative: events that are normal for developing humans
Body Changes:
o Rapid changes
o Babies triple in weight and grow by 1 foot
o Stress and neglect can have serious consequences (lack of safety, food, human
interaction/emotional needs)
o Cortisol: hormone released when you are stressed
o When babies are stressed they either over compensate with cortisol or over
compensate, becomes apparent during puberty
o Infants have high resiliency because brain is not fully developed (they are able to
change the wiring in their brain in ways that adults cannot)
o Ability to chew and swallow does not develop until second half of the first year
Malnutrition in Infancy:
o Infants capable of thriving mostly on breast milk
o Marasmus: disease where body wastes away due to lack of nutrients, body stops
growing, muscles atrophy, baby becomes increasingly lethargic
Causes/Prevention of Infant Mortality:
o Malaria
o Dysentery: illness of digestive system (bacteria)
o #1 cause of infant death is diarrhea, they lose fluids and die of dehydration if not
treated, can be caused by range of digestive illnesses
o Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT): treatment for infant diarrhea that involves
drinking a solution of salt and glucose mixed with clean water.
Sleep:
o Brain grows in size and mass
o Quiet Sleep: longer stretches of sleep (5-7 hours) sarcadium rhythm has kicked in
(3-4 moths)
o Sleeping through the night- 12 to 14 months, depends on caloric intake (solid
food has more calories which means they can go longer without food)
o Napping patterns:
3-6 months old: 3 naps a day
8-12 months: 2 naps a day
18-24 months: 1 nap a day (toddlerhood) 2-3 hour nap in the middle of
the day
o Create a good routine that communicates to your kid that it is time to sleep
Co-sleeping:
o Most common sleeping idea worldwide: co-sleeping except for the United States
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o Developing countries view this as normal, promotes close parent-child
attachment
o United states says that if you co sleep your child will never learn to be
idepedet, other outries sa that if ou do’t our hild ill eer od
with you
o Change sleeping patterns before or after 6-18 months, any time during this will
be stressful for you and baby
o Neither sleeping ideas have scientific evidence that they help or hurt the child
later in life
o One very small piece of evidence: prior to 6 months babies wake up less and are
soothed a little easier if sleeping next to parent
Brain Development:
o By 2 years of age they have 75% of adult brain weight
o Born with 25% of brain weight
o At age 5 you have 90% of your brain weight
o Head circumference measurement at every doctor visit to ensure the brain is
growing
o Neurons: nerve cells that are responsible for automating everything we do
(breathing, walking)
o Axon: sends messages to other cells
o Dendrites: receive messages from other neurons
o Exuberance:
Transient exuberance: (example: learning new language)
o Pruning: if you do not use certain brain pathways they become less and less
accessible use it or lose it0
Motor Development:
o
Gross Motor Skills: large muscle movements
o 1st: turning body over
o Swimming movements when laying on stomach
o Sitting up (6-7 months)
o 7-8 months: crawling
o Holding on to things and pulling themselves up, walking along things that will
keep them steady (ex. A couch)
o 9-15 months normative for first steps
Fine motor skill:
o Transferring items from one hand to the other
o Pinching (think finger food)
Public health measures:
o Immunizations
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Description
• Infancy: 3-18 moths • Normative: events that are normal for developing humans • Body Changes: o Rapid changes o Babies triple in weight and grow by 1 foot o Stress and neglect can have serious consequences (lack of safety, food, human interaction/emotional needs) o Cortisol: hormone released when you are stressed o When babies are stressed they either over compensate with cortisol or over compensate, becomes apparent during puberty o Infants have high resiliency because brain is not fully developed (they are able to change the wiring in their brain in ways that adults cannot) o Ability to chew and swallow does not develop until second half of the first year • Malnutrition in Infancy: o Infants capable of thriving mostly on breast milk o Marasmus: disease where body wastes away due to lack of nutrients, body stops growing, muscles atrophy, baby becomes increasingly lethargic • Causes/Prevention of Infant Mortality: o Malaria o Dysentery: illness of digestive system (bacteria) o #1 cause of infant death is diarrhea, they lose fluids and die of dehydration if not treated, can be caused by range of digestive illnesses o Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT): treatment for infant diarrhea that involves drinking a solution of salt and glucose mixed with clean water. • Sleep: o Brain grows in size and mass o Quiet Sleep: longer stretches of sleep (5-7 hours) sarcadium rhythm has kicked in (3-4 moths) o Sleeping through the night- 12 to 14 months, depends on caloric intake (solid food has more calories which means they can go longer without food) o Napping patterns: ▪ 3-6 months old: 3 naps a day ▪ 8-12 months: 2 naps a day ▪ 18-24 months: 1 nap a day (toddlerhood) 2-3 hour nap in the middle of the day o Create a good routine that communicates to your kid that it is time to sleep • Co-sleeping: o Most common sleeping idea worldwide: co-sleeping except for the United States o Developing countries view this as normal, promotes close parent-child attachment o United states says that if you co sleep your child will never learn to be independent, other countries say that if you don’t your child will never bond with you o Change sleeping patterns before or after 6-18 months, any time during this will be stressful for you and baby o Neither sleeping ideas have scientific evidence that they help or hurt the child later in life o One very small piece of evidence: prior to 6 months babies wake up less and are soothed a little easier if sleeping next to parent • Brain Development: o By 2 years of age they have 75% of adult brain weight o Born with 25% of brain weight o At age 5 you have 90% of your brain weight o Head circumference measurement at every doctor visit to ensure the brain is growing o Neurons: nerve cells that are responsible for automating everything we do (breathing, walking) o Axon: sends messages to other cells o Dendrites: receive messages from other neurons o Exuberance: ▪ Transient exuberance: (example: learning new language) o Pruning: if you do not use certain brain pathways they become less and less accessible (“use it or lose it”)0 • Motor Development: o • Gross Motor Skills: large muscle movements o 1 : turning body over o Swimming movements when laying on stomach o Sitting up (6-7 months) o 7-8 months: crawling o Holding on to things and pulling themselves up, walking along things that will keep them steady (ex. A couch) o 9-15 months normative for first steps • Fine motor skill: o Transferring items from one hand to the other o Pinching (think finger food) • Public health measures: o Immunizations ▪ Give anyone a low dose of a strain of disease to create antibodies ▪ Immunizing to maintain herd immunity ▪ Herd immunity: at least 90% of the population is immunized to prevent epidemics and break outs ▪ MMR: measles mumps and rubella immunization, in 1980s British dude publicized that MMR is linked to autism, no other scientists could replicate the results. Dr came out and said that he falsified the results. Even though it has been redacted, many parents still refuse to vaccinate o SIDS: sudden infant death syndrome, babies suddenly dying in their sleep ▪ Second hand smoke, sleeping on stomachs, pillows, blankets, sheets of any kind that are not fitted to the mattress, low birth weight are all risk factors for SIDS o Breast feeding: ▪ 4-6 months is when should kids should start eating “solid foods” mixed with breast milk ▪ No dairy until after 1 year • Cognitive Development: o Piaget- sensory motor development, articulates that kids go through circular reactions, you do something and see what happens and then change your behavior around it ▪ Must know sub stages and be able to identify them o Stage one: ▪ Simple reflexes: rooting, grasping, sucking o Stage 2: ▪ First acquired adaptations, change in reflexes that show they have learned something o Stage 3: making intere
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