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CHM 113 (103)
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Lecture

# KMT, Effusion & Diffusion

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School
Arizona State University
Department
Chemistry
Course
CHM 113
Professor
Ron Briggs
Semester
Fall

Description
An ideal gas is assumed to have: - Particles with zero volume - No attractive forces between particles Real gases behave most like Ideal Gases at low P and high T: - At low pressure: o Particle size is negligible compared to the container volume o Attractive forces are minimized - At high temperature: o Faster speeds and more energy to container attractive forces - Identity of the gas matters Alternative to the Ideal Gas Law is the Van Der Waal’s Equation: P = (nRT)/(V-nb) – (n a)/v 2 - A and b are Van Der Waal’s constants - Similar to Ideal Gas Law o PV = nRT  P = (nRT)/v - But with a few modifications: o V is replaced by v-nb to correct for nonzero volume of particles o The (n a)/v term corrects for particles attraction Gas Mixtures and Stoichiometry To do calculations with a mixture of gases, we use Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures: - The partial pressures of the individual gases in a mixture add up to the total pressure o P total Pa+ P b P …c o P =air N2 + PO2 + P H2O… - We can now use T, V, P in stoichiometry calculations because we can relate to using the Ideal Gas Law Kinetic Molecular Theory - KMT: a set of assumptions about the nature of gases that translate mathematically into the Ideal Gas Law o Explains macroscopic properties (such as P, V, T) by considering microscopic
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