Class Notes (838,386)
United States (325,381)
Chemistry (181)
CHM 113 (103)
Ron Briggs (24)
Lecture 1

CHM 113 Lecture 1: Test 2 Notes

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHM 113
Professor
Ron Briggs
Semester
Spring

Description
Chapter 4- Types of Reactions - Single Replacement Reactions: - One element (typically a metal) replaces another in a compound AB+C→CB+A - Ex: Thermite Reaction - 2Al(s)+Fe​ O​2​A3​ O​ (s2​2F3​l)+heat - Predicting Single Replacement Reactions: - Zn(NO​ )​ 3​ 2​Mg(s)→Mg(NO​ )​ (aq)+Zn(s)3​ 2​ - Zn(NO​ )​ (aq)+Cu(s)→No Reaction 3​ 2​ - Zn gives up (NO​ )​ to3​ 2 ​t not Cu, why? - Zn(NO​ )​ (aq)+Mg(s)→Mg(NO​ )​ (aq)+Zn(s) 3​ 2​ 3​ 2​ - Zn and Mg are changing oxidation numbers this is a production/oxidation + - Zn goes from +2→ 0 Oxidation number It is gaining 2e​ - Mg goes from 0→ +2 Oxidation number It is losing 2e​ + -​ - Reduction= process in which substances gain e​ (LEO GER) - Oxidation= process in which substances loses e​ (OIL RIG) -​ - Mg is a more “active” metal then Zn - Mg is more likely than Zn to lose e​ and become a (+) ionic solution - Mg is more likely attractive to the (-) (NO​ )​ ions 3​ 2​ - Activity Series: Metals of higher activity will replace metals of lower activity in a compound - Double Replacement Reaction: - Two elements or ions swapping places - AB+CD→AD+CB - PCl​ (l)+3 AgF(s)→PF​ (s)+3AgCl(s) 3​ 3​ - AgNO​ (a3​+NaCl(aq)→NaNO​ (aq)+AgCl(s) 3​ - Products are a solid precipitate, a gas of H​ O 2​ - Decomposition Reaction: - Breaks down (decomposes) into two or more simple substances. Typically requires energy (heat,light,etc.) but some are spontaneous - 2NaN​ (3​→ (electricity) →2Na(s)+3N​ (s) 2​ - Combination (synthesis) Reaction: - Two or more reactants combine to form a compound (opposite of decomposition) - 2Na(s)+Cl​ (g)→2NaCl(s) 2​ - Combustion Reaction: - Combination/Redox reaction where a fuel burns in the presence of an oxidizer (typically O​ )2​ - Results in the production of heat, a flame, or a glow Precipitation Reaction: Double Displacement Reaction - In which a solid (precipitate) is formed in solution - Dissociation: break up of a soluble ionic compound into ions in solution - Solubility rules tells us which ionic compounds will dissociate - Electrolyte: solution of ions that conducts electricity strength depends on the extent of ion formation in solution - Strong Electrolyte: Nearly 100% dissociation (many ions) - Ex: all soluble ionic compounds in water, strong acids, strong bases - More ions=stronger electrolyte: Al(NO)​ (4 ions)3​aCl (2 ions) - Weak Electrolyte: only come dissociation (few ions) - Ex: weak acids, weak bases - Non-electrolytes: no dissociation (no ions) - Ex: molecular (covalent) compounds, pure H​ O, hydroca2​ons - Many molecular compounds are soluble (dissolve) in H​ O, but don’t dissociate 2​ - Identify the following as strong, weak, or nonelectrolyte: Ionic Equations and Precipitation Reaction - What happens when NaI (aq) and Pb(NO​ )​ (aq) are3​ 2​d in solution? - Step 1: Identify all the ions - NaI→Na​ +I​ +​ - - Pb(NO​ )​ →3​ 2+NO​ 2+​ 3​ - Step 2: Predict new cation/anion combinations - New products: Na​ +NO​ →NaNO​ ; Pb​ +I​ →PbI​ 2+​ - 3​ 3​ 2 - Step 3: Write and balance a molecular equation w/ both products - Overall: 2NaI+Pb(NO​ )​ →2NaNO​ +3​ 2 3​ 2 - Step 4: Determine which products are soluble (using solubility rules) - NaNO​ : Soluble, so stays as Na​ and NO​ ions +​ -​ 3​ 3​ - PbI​ 2​insoluble, so expected to be solid PbI​ precipitate 2​ - Step 5: Write ionic equation for the reaction - Complete ionic equation: includes all ions, even those that don’t participate in the reaction +​ +​ 2+​ -​ +​ - ​ - 2Na​ (aq) + 2I​ (aq)+Pb​ (aq)+2NO​ (aq)→2Na​ (aq) +23​​ (aq) 3​ - Spectator ions: ions that don’t take part in +PbI​ (s) rxn appear on b2​h sides of the arrow (Na​ and NO​ here) -​ 3​ - Net Ionic equation complete ionic equation minus spectator ions 2+​ -​ - Pb​ (aq)+2I​(aq)→PbI​ (s) 2​ Acid-Base Reactions - Definitions: +​ - - Arrhenius: An acid produces H​ O​ when added to3​​ O; A base produces OH​ 2​ when added to H​ O 2​ - Bronsted-Lowry: An acid donated H​ to another species; A base acceptor H​ to +​ another species - Lewis: An acid is an e​ pair acceptor; A base is a e​ pair donor -​ - Strong Acid/Base Reaction Neutralizer Reactions: - HCl (aq)+NaOH(aq) (SA+SB) +​ -​ - HCl (aq)→H​ (aq)+ I​(aq) - Complete: H​ (aq) + Cl​(aq) +OH​(aq)+ H​ O -​ 2​ - Net: H​ (aq)+OH​(aq)→H​ O(l) 2​ - Neutralizer Reaction= Double Replacement - Reaction where an acid and a base react to form a salt and often H​ O 2​ II Concentration of Solutions: - Solubility: Max amount of a solution that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent - Qualitative Representations: - Dilute: small amount of solute - Concentration: large amount of solute - Saturated: max amount of dissolved solute (saturation point) - Unsaturated: less than max of dissolved solute - Supersaturated: more dissolved solute that could be dissolved under normal circumstances g of solute V olume of solute - 100 g of solution; volume= Total V olume • 100% mass of solute - Mass%= total mass • 100% g of solute - Parts per million (ppm)= 10 g of solution g of solute - Parts per billion (ppb)= 10 g of solution g of solute - Parts per trillion (ppt)= 12 10 g of solution - Molarity= moles of solute kg of solvent - Mole Fraction(x)= Moles of component total moles of all components - Molarity (M)= moles of solute L solution mol - [HCl]=12M= “The concentration of HCl is 12 L ”
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