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Lecture 11

CHM 114 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Thermodynamics, Energy Flux


Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHM 114
Professor
George Wolf
Lecture
11

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Thermodynamics: Energy and its Transformations
● Examples: thermal, radiant, electrical, nuclear, chemical
● Energy: capacity to do work and ability to produce change
β—‹ cannot see energy but may observe evidence that energy exists (converted or
transferred from one form to another)
● Kinetic Energy
β—‹ Ek = K = Β½*m*v2 (m = mass of object)
β—‹ [kg*m2/sec2] = Joule = Nm
●Potential Energy
β—‹ energy associated with position of an object
β—‹ m*g*h
● Spring Energy
β—‹ V = 1/2kx2
β—‹ k = spring constant
● Different Forms of Potential Energy→ (simply has to do with position in space)
β—‹ Elastic
β—‹ Electrostatic
β–  Fe = kq1q2/r2
β—‹ Gravitational
β—‹ Chemical
● Thermodynamic System
β—‹ system + surroundings
β—‹ Closed System: energy transfer but no mass transfer
β—‹ Open System: energy and

matter transfer
β—‹ Isolated System: neither energy nor

mass transfer
● Internal Energy, E
β—‹ sum of all

kinetic and potential energies of all components of system, we call it E
β—‹ we seek to quantify change in internal energy of system, (delta E), when it
transforms from some initial state to some final state
β—‹ Ef - Ei
β—‹ measure energy flux into or out of system
β–  i.e. energy exchange with the surroundings
● Mechanical Work, w
β—‹ w = F * delta(x)
β—‹ F = external force
β—‹ delta x = displacement
β–  (F/A)(A*x)
β–  = -P*V
β–  when delta V > 0 β†’ transferring energy out of system
β–  when delta V < 0 β†’ transferring energy into system
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