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Lecture 11

# CHM 114 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Thermodynamics, Energy Flux

This preview shows half of the first page. to view the full 1 pages of the document. Thermodynamics: Energy and its Transformations
Examples: thermal, radiant, electrical, nuclear, chemical
Energy: capacity to do work and ability to produce change
cannot see energy but may observe evidence that energy exists (converted or
transferred from one form to another)
Kinetic Energy
Ek = K = ½*m*v2 (m = mass of object)
○ [kg*m2/sec2] = Joule = Nm
Potential Energy
energy associated with position of an object
m*g*h
Spring Energy
V = 1/2kx2
k = spring constant
Different Forms of Potential Energy→ (simply has to do with position in space)
Elastic
Electrostatic
■ Fe = kq1q2/r2
Gravitational
Chemical
Thermodynamic System
system + surroundings
Closed System: energy transfer but no mass transfer
Open System: energy and
matter transfer
Isolated System: neither energy nor
mass transfer
Internal Energy, E
sum of all
kinetic and potential energies of all components of system, we call it E
we seek to quantify change in internal energy of system, (delta E), when it
transforms from some initial state to some final state
○ Ef - Ei
measure energy flux into or out of system
i.e. energy exchange with the surroundings
Mechanical Work, w
w = F * delta(x)
F = external force
delta x = displacement
(F/A)(A*x)
■ = -P*V
when delta V > 0 → transferring energy out of system
when delta V < 0 → transferring energy into system