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**preview**shows half of the first page. to view the full**1 pages of the document.**Thermodynamics: Energy and its Transformations

ā Examples: thermal, radiant, electrical, nuclear, chemical

ā Energy: capacity to do work and ability to produce change

ā cannot see energy but may observe evidence that energy exists (converted or

transferred from one form to another)

ā Kinetic Energy

ā Ek = K = Ā½*m*vī2ī (m = mass of object)

ā [kg*mī2ī/secī2ī] = Joule = Nm

āPotential Energy

ā energy associated with position of an object

ā m*g*h

ā Spring Energy

ā V = 1/2kxī2

ā k = spring constant

ā Different Forms of Potential Energyīā (simply has to do with position in space)

ā Elastic

ā Electrostatic

ā Fīeī = kqī1īqī2ī/rī2

ā Gravitational

ā Chemical

ā Thermodynamic System

ā system + surroundings

ā Closed Systemī: energy transfer but no mass transfer

ā Open Systemī: energy īand

ī

matter transfer

ā Isolated Systemī: neither energy īnor

ī

mass transfer

ā Internal Energy, īE

ā sum of īall

ī

kinetic and potential energies of all components of system, we call it īE

ā we seek to quantify change in internal energy of system, (delta E), when it

transforms from some initial state to some final state

ā Eīfī - Eīi

ā measure energy flux into or out of system

ā i.e. energy exchange with the surroundings

ā Mechanical Work, īw

ā w = F * delta(x)

ā F = external force

ā delta x = displacement

ā (F/A)(A*x)

ā =ī -P*V

ā when delta V > 0 ā transferring energy īoutī of system

ā when delta V < 0 ā transferring energy īintoī system

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