GSAC XX Round 3
1. Brahmagupta’s identity states that performing this operation on two square numbers results in
a closed set under multiplication. This operation is repeatedly performed on terms in the Taylor
polynomial for the hyperbolic cosine function, and the tip-to-tail method or the parallelogram
method is used when performing this operation on two or more vectors. Performing this
operation on a sequence of numbers turns it into a series, which is represented with an uppercase
sigma. For 10 points, name this mathematical operation that is the inverse of subtraction.
ANSWER: Addition [accept Adding or Summing or Summation]
2. A ruined hill fortress in this nation was the capital of the Kingdom of M⋅pun ⋅gub ⋅we, which
was a predecessor to Great Zimbabwe, and it is the only nation to have voluntarily destroyed its
nuclear arsenal. The states of Natal, Cape Colony, the Orange Free State, and Transvaal were
united by the British to form this modern commonwealth. This country where the Soweto
massacre took place sentenced one of its future presidents to imprisonment on Robben Island,
and it was led by F. W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela. For 10 points, name this African nation
whose largest city is Johannesburg.
ANSWER: Republic of South Africa
3. This artist depicted a woman holding a pencil in one hand and porcelain in the other in his
painting Purple and Rose. This man painted a girl in a white dress holding a fan in her right hand
and staring at the mirror on top of a fireplace, and he impressed Frederick Leyland with a work
depicting golden leaves and two creatures fighting. In addition to The Peacock Room, he painted
several views of the Old Battersea Bridge as well as a view of fireworks at the Cremorne
Gardens. For 10 points, name this American artist of Nocturne in Black and Gold, whose
Arrangement in Grey and Black is a portrait of his mother.
ANSWER: James Abbott MacNeill Whistler
4. This author wrote about the moneylender Solomon, who urges Albert to poison his own father
for money in The Covetous Knight, and another of his works ends with Mozart drinking poisoned
champagne. Ludmila is kidnapped by the wizard Chernomor in one work of this author, who also
wrote about the engineer Hermann’s attempt to learn gambling secrets from the Countess in
“Queen of Spades.” The lover of Parasha is chased by a statue of Peter the Great in “The Bronze
Horseman,” while the title character of another novel by this man dances with Olga and shoots
Vladimir Lensky in a duel. For 10 points, name this Russian author of Eugene Onegin.
ANSWER: Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin
5. In one of this man’s works, three ministers reminisce about a “house in Honan with its little
blue lake” after singing “leave women alone!” to dissuade the protagonist from ringing a gong.
Another of his works sees Angelotti’s death announced by Spoleta. One of his pieces sees Ping,
Pong, and Pang berate Calaf for his love of Turandot, while another depicts the title character
murdering Scarpia. This composer of an opera that features Mimi and the poet Rodolfo also
wrote a work about B. F. Pinkerton, who leases a house for nine-hundred-ninety-nine years with
Cio-Cio San. For 10 points, name this composer of Tosca, La Bohème, and Madame Butterfly.
ANSWER: Giacomo Puccini GSAC XX Round 3
6. Hairpin loops are formed to signal the termination of this process. A TATA box and proteins
combine to form a preinitiation complex to allow this process to occur in eukaryotes. Viruses
such as HIV use the reverse form of this process to combine with a host cell, and uracil acts as a
replacement for thymine during it. Following this process, a poly-A tail is added to its product,
and important enzymes involved during it include helicase and RNA polymerase. For 10 points,
name this process during which genetic information from a DNA strand is copied into messenger
RNA, which is followed by translation.
7. According to Plutarch, this deity was often identified with the monster Typhon. This god was
tricked into swearing an oath granting his kingdom to his nephew while intoxicated, and that
nephew ejaculated semen into this god’s lettuce. He was defeated in a boat race when his
opponent painted a wooden boat to resemble stone, and this god battled the serpent Apep in
order to ensure Ra’s safe passage through the underworld. He is most notorious for murdering
his brother Osiris. For 10 points, name this Egyptian god of storms, the desert, and chaos, the
rival of Horus.
ANSWER: Set [accept Seth or Setesh or Sutekh or Setekh or Suty]
8. One character by this author time-travels by falling into the Seine and becomes an illegitimate
brother of Philip II. That character, Pollo, later returns to Paris and gives birth to the New World
with his love Celestina. It’s not Don Quixote, but one novel by this author of Terra Nostra
features a man who jousts with windmills and the hired tutor of the Miranda family, Harriet
Winslow. This man wrote about a dying tycoon who talks about his love for Regina and
Catalina, and he wrote a novel which imagined the death of Ambrose Bierce. For 10 points,
name this Mexican author of The Old Gringo and The Death of Artemio Cruz.
ANSWER: Carlos Fuentes Macias
9. This leader's rise to power came with the death of Shirkuh and the assassination of Shawar,
and he forced the Zengids out of Syria. This man’s much larger force was routed at Montgisard
by the forces of King Baldwin IV, and he suffered one of his largest defeats at Arsuf. After his
victory at the Battle of Hattin, he executed Reynald de Chattilon but spared the life of Guy de
Lusignon. The founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, For 10 points, name this chivalrous Muslim ruler
who captured Jerusalem and defended it against Richard the Lionheart in the Third Crusade.
ANSWER: Saladin [accept Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub]
10. A plan to build the Yuma Desalting Plant might prevent damage from salty water originating
from this river. Valley of Fire State Park leads to one of this river’s famous locations into which
the Virgin River empties. The Gila River is a major tributary of this river, which is also joined by
the Green River. This river, which serves as the source of water for irrigation of the Imperial
Valley, contains the Hoover Dam, which creates Lake Mead. For 10 points, name this river
which empties into the Gulf of California and flows through the Grand Canyon.
ANSWER: Colorado River GSAC XX Round 3
11. This author wrote a novel in which Maurice Hall befriends Clive Durham, who introduces
him to ancient Greek literature about homosexuality. In another work, George Emerson throws
bloodstained photographs into the river after witnessing a murder and marries Lucy
Honeychurch after she leaves her fiancé Cecil Vyse. Charles Wilcox murders Leonard Bast
while trying to remove Margaret and Helen from the title location in another of his works, and
this author of Howard’s End wrote a novel in which Dr. Aziz is accused of assaulting Ms.
Quested. For 10 points, name this author of A Room With a View and A Passage to India.
ANSWER: Edward Morgan Forster
12. This work postulates that political organizations neither influence nor interest young girls,
and it compared the American education system with that of another country. It was based on
research conducted on Tau, and one critique of this work claimed that its subjects provided false
information, which was written by Derek Freeman. This work described a stress-free society in
which adolescents practiced casual sex before settling down in adulthood. For 10 points, name
this anthropological work which examined the lives of women on its title island, a work of
ANSWER: Coming of Age in Samoa
13. One equation describing this phenomenon sets the sine of theta equal to the extreme path
difference over the distance, and another equation employs a factor of 1.22. That equation is the
Rayleigh criterion, which gives minimum resolution due to this phenomenon. Rosalind Franklin
employed this phenomenon with X-rays to obtain images of DNA. Airy disks are formed by this
process, of which there are Fraunhofer and Fresnel types, and it is described using Bragg’s law.
It is explained using a principle that treats every point on a wavefront as a wave source, which is
named for Huygens. For 10 points, name this term for the bending of light around an obstacle.
14. In this conflict, George Rooke fought a French fleet to a standstill off the coast of Malaga
after capturing Gibraltar. Following this conflict, one nation was given the right to supply slaves
to certain colonies through the asiento. At the Battle of Malplaquet, Prince Eugene of Savoy and
the Duke of Marlborough won a narrow Pyrrhic victory, falling short of their decisive victory at
the Battle of Blenheim five years prior. Known as Queen Anne’s War in the Americas, For 10
points, name this conflict that was precipitated by the death of the Hapsburg monarch Charles II
and was ended by the Treaty of Utrecht.
ANSWER: War of the Spanish Succession [prompt on Queen Anne’s War before mention]
15. This work’s fourth movement features the string section playing a slowed down version of
“Galop Infernal” from Offenbach’s Orpheus in the Underworld. In another movement of this
work, an offstage clarinet repeats a C–A flat motif, representing a noise from “the depth of the
woods.” The composer of this work allowed only one movement to be played publicly before his
death, deeming the others not serious enough for his reputation. In that movement, a cello solo
symbolizes its title creature gliding over the water, which is titled “The Swan.” For 10 points,
name this 14-movement work composed by Camille Saint-Saëns.
ANSWER: The Carnival of the Animals [accept Le carnaval des animaux] GSAC XX Round 3
16. This quantity is found on the lower right of the thermodynamic square, indicating its
conjugacy to entropy. The equipartition theorem relates this quantity to the energies in a system,
and the exponent in the Arrhenius equation contains Boltzmann’s constant or the ideal gas
constant multiplied by this quantity. Charles’ law states that the volume of a gas is proportional
to this quantity, whose lower bound according to the third law of thermodynamics is absolute
zero. Equal for two bodies in thermodynamic equilibrium, For 10 points, name this quantity
measured in Kelvin.
17. Only two photographs of this religion’s founder are known to exist, which are infrequently
viewed when not on pilgrimage. A Guardian of this religion attempted to expand it during the
Ten Year World Crusade. One text of this religion observed by Shoghi Effendi was written in
response to questions from two prominent Sufis and is titled The Seven Valleys, and this religion
has a nineteen-month calendar consisting of nineteen days each. Another text of this religion
symbolized by a nine-pointed star is The Book of Certitude. For 10 points, name this religion
governed from the Universal House of Justice, which was founded by the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh.
ANSWER: Bahá'í Faith
18. This man’s Special Field Orders No. 15 provided for the resettlement of slaves freed after
one of his campaigns. During that campaign, he had a tactical defeat at the Battle of Kennesaw
Mountain, and his assaults on Patrick Cleburne’s division were repulsed at the Battle of
Chattanooga. After Lee’s surrender at Appomattox Court House, this general met at Bennett
Place to accept the surrender of Joseph Johnston. His “neckties,” which were broken railroad
tracks wrapped around trees, exemplify his use of scorched earth tactics. For 10 points, name this
Union officer who captured Atlanta and Savannah during his “March to the Sea.”
ANSWER: William Tecumseh Sherman
19. One character in this play gives the protagonist a bus ticket to Laurel as her birthday present,
and in another scene, he throws a radio out the window. The protagonist is disturbed when that
character mentions her dead homosexual husband, and a fire breaks out while her friend Mitch
tries to assault her. This play begins with the protagonist arriving at the Elysian Fields to see her
sister Stella, who she has not seen since her marriage to Stanley Kowalski. Blanche DuBois is
sent to an asylum after being raped at the end of this work. For 10 points, name this play by
ANSWER: A Streetcar Named Desire
20. In one work, this man claimed that “There is no such thing as moral phenomena, but only a
moral interpretation of phenomena.” This man argued that the ruled create a morality to make
their suffering bearable, and he included the chapter “Why I Am a Destiny” in Ecce Homo. He
discussed the Apollonian and Dionysian views of art in The Birth of Tragedy, and he wrote about
a Persian prophet who claims that humanity must embrace the indifferent universe and become
the Übermensch. For 10 points, name this German philosopher who claimed that “God is dead,”
the author of Thus Spoke Zarathustra.
ANSWER: Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche GSAC XX Round 3
TB. This person was imprisoned in the Tower of London upon suspicion of helping to incite
Wyatt’s Rebellion. After rising to power, this monarch sent the Earl of Leicester to aid Dutch
rebels following the Treaty of Nonsuch. This ruler who passed the Second Act of Supremacy
was advised by Robert Cecil. The Babington Plot was defeated by her spymaster Sir Francis
Walsingham, which led to the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots, and her “Sea Dogs” included
Sir Francis Drake. Known as the “Virgin Queen,” For 10 points, name this queen of England
whose reign saw the defeat