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Cultural Geography
GCU 114
Daniel Hume

CCOT China (religion): Between 600 CE and 1500 CE, Tang China attempted to eradicate Buddhism for its high acceptance in 840 until the Yuan Empire demoted Confucianism in 1200s, which was followed by a strong pursuit of Confucian beliefs in the Ming Empire in the 1500s, while Buddhism was never fully eradicated and was always present. Evidence: After Tang support of Buddhism for years, the Confucianist elites were upset at Buddhist monks not paying taxes and believed that Buddhism undermined family values (women could participate in politics). Then the Yuan demoted Confucianism and many men became merchants. After that the Ming tried to bring it back. Can use song neo-Confucianism as part of continuity, even when Confucianism was wanted by people it was tied in with Buddhism. Tang Buddhism 600-800 > Tang Confucianism (Persecution of Buddhism) 800-900 > Song Neo- Confucianism 960-1279> Yuan Demotion of Confucianism (Possibly accepted Buddhism) 126> Ming Confucianism Prevalence of Buddhism. Buddhism was NEVER fully eradicated and always bounced back. Tang was the center of Mahayana Buddhist ideas and Vietnam, Korea came to the Tang for new ideas. The Tang elites eventually were unhappy (look above). They tried to get rid of Buddhism by burning monasteries and such, but it still lasted. The Song empire realized the Tang failure and instead incorporated Buddhism into neo-Confucianism. Yuan accepted Buddhism and really, all belief systems, including Confucianism (but the new Confucians had lower status than, say, in the Tang). The Ming did not LIKE the “foreign-ness” of Buddhism, but regardless Buddhism was still there. GLOBAL: Vietnam, Korea came to the Tang capitol for new Buddhist ideas. Japan and Korea were introduced into Chan Buddhism. Tang Mahayana Buddhism influenced Tibet and caused them to create Tibetan Buddhism. China (trade): Between 600 CE and 1500 CE, Chinese trade gradually grew throughout Tang, Song, and Yuan power, until anti-Mongol sentiments led to closed-door Ming policies by the 1300s, although the importance of the Silk Road persisted. Evidence: Tang exports often vastly outnumbered imports. Travel along the Silk Road increased, ports of IOTN got more commerce. Goods included superior silks and porcelain. In the Song dynasty, rapid economic growth (land no longer only source of wealth, undermined gov’t monopolies) (cities, commerce, use of credit grew, as Song industries were able to mass produce goods like bronze and ceramics). In the Yuan, the capitol (Beijing) was connected to the caravan routes. The caravan routes connected Europe to China (use of Silk Road). Plus, since Confucianism declined in importance, merchants were looked down upon less, and corporations/gentry families began engaging in commerce. But the Ming dynasty didn’t do this. Instead, due to anti-Mongol (and anti-foreigner, tight policies) policies, they closed up. They censored their technology (guns, gunpowder) from Southeast Asia by shutting down shipyards and ports. Emperor Yongle started maritime expeditions, but they were not for trade. GLOBAL: Silk Road connected Europe to China in Yuan Empire China (political structure): Between 600 CE and 1500 CE, Chinese political structures experienced a dramatic turning point with the fall of the Tang empire and the establishment of the Yuan empire in the 1200s, which led to the tight Ming political policies by the 1300s, although an imperial structure persisted. Evidence: GLOBAL: China (interactions): Between 600 CE and 1500 CE, Chinese interactions experienced a dramatic turning point with the establishment of Yuan power, which led to closed-door Ming policies by the 1300s, although some degree of contact with Korea and Japan persisted. Evidence: Africa (religion): Between 600 CE and 1500 CE, African religion gradually changed from indigenous religions and cults to the organized religion of Islam because of trade contacts, while continuously believing in magicians, magic, and other things Islam couldn’t change. Evidence: Started out as folk religions believing in magicians and etc. Ruler of Takrur converted in 1030, and after that, it spread peacefully through trade and viciously through the Biebers. By the end, Africa was mostly all Islamic states. Africa (Economy): Between 600 CE and 1500 CE, African trade differed as Ghana first used the domination of Trans-Saharan trade routes and a good agricultural base to dominate trade in Africa, Mali expanded on land and used Islam to further expand this, while because they didn't go out beyond the rural communities in which their families had lived for generations, the villages endured an an agricultural support, rather than extensive trade, while the kingdoms and empires rose and fell with increased outside contact. Evidence: ● Mali later controlling the gold/ copper mines (believed to have caused value of gold to remain depressed in Cairo for years; Musa so lmavish with his gifts because it was his personal duty as a Muslim to display Mali’s exceeding wealth) ● Also, North African Muslim traders gave Mali and its rulers significant prosperity. From these riches, 1250 to 1500 about 30 to 40 city states rose that provided a lot of profits (Ex: Great Zimbabwe). Africa (political structure): Between 600 CE and 1500 CE, Afric
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