EXW 330 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness, Palmaris Longus Muscle, Schwann Cell

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Published on 18 Oct 2016
Ho does the erous syste differ fro the edorie syste? Why are oth regulatory?
The nervous system electrical signals and neurotransmitters to rapidly control body functions
The endocrine hormones to slowly control body functions over a longer period of time.
Neurobiology: how the nervous system lives
Neuroanatomy: how the nervous system is structured
Neurophysiology: how the nervous system functions
Neurology: medical study
Be able to identify the functions, organization, and essential anatomy of the nervous system.
Trace a simple neuromuscular feedback loop (slide 7)
Functions of the nervous system:
1. Sensory input taste touch hear
2. Integration sensation to response
3. Control of muscles and glands
4. Homeostasis stimulation, inhibition
5. Mental activity consciousness, emotion
CNS: central function is very complex/ simple structure brain and spinal cord
1. Sensory division (afferent): senses/ environmental stimulus detected by the body carries sensory
signals from various receptors (sense organs, nerve endings) to CNS
Visceral sensory division: senses from thoracic and abdominal organs hunger, pain
Somatic sensory division: senses from skin, muscle, bones, and joints ex. Delayed onset
muscle soreness
2. Motor division (efferent): carries signals from the CNS to gland and muscle cells that execute the
ody’s responses
Visceral motor division sympathetic and parasympathetic
Somatic motor division signals skeletal muscles, output produces tension development
(voluntary control) and reflex actions (involuntary control)
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What are glial cells? Why are they important in kinesiology?
Glial cells: support the function of the neuron (contribute to myelination)/ metabolic and neurological support
1. Oligodendrocytes: in CNS, form the myelin around brain and spinal cord
2. Schwann cells: in PNS, form neurilemma around all PNS nerve fibers and myelin around most aid in
regeneration of damaged nerve fibers
Neural control of movement
1. Cerebral cortex (generalized action/ superiorly located): conscious and voluntary function originate
conscious thought to produce a motor movement
2. Basal nuclei (ganglia): lower level functioning of motor control motor memory/ balance and equilibrium
3. Cerebellum: (C for compare) sensory input/motor output integration center, refines movements more
4. Brain stem (midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata): signals on/off switchessensory excitation/inhibition,
arousal and wakefulness
5. Spinal cord (most specific actions/inferiorly located): CNSPNS
Be able to identify and describe the types of axons we discussed in class.
Neuron = actually cell / nerve = bundle of axons
Multipolar: has many dendrites and an axon
Bipolar: has a dendrite and an axon
Unipolar: has an axon and no dendrites
Anaxonic: no axon primarily in the brain
Myelinated oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells contribute to protected layer/ similar to lipid bilayer
Unmyelinated more or less Schwann cell, wraps its self around the nerve fiber often overlapping, still a
protected layer just not as well
Outline all of the common neurologic disorders from slide 25 and describe their relevance to kinesiology.
Parkinson CNS problem with the brain specifically motor cortex/ the cells that produce dopamine (stop
producing adequate amounts of dopamine) symptoms = tremors/ progressive
Cerebral palsy paralysis, brain damage at birth or infection. Stay in the same state throughout lifetime it is
irreversible but does not worsen
Epilepsy CNS dysfunction in brain neuronal activity pattern, electrical activity becomes randomly
unorganized throughout the day (seizures)
Multiple sclerosis PNS problem, normal brain/spinal cord function. Degradation of Schwann cells (myelin) of
axons in CNS problems with motor control/ can progress
ALS motor neuron degeneration/ very progressive
Know skeletal muscle nomenclature, anatomy, functional relationships, and its relationship/differences to
cardiac and smooth muscle.
Skeletal muscle functions:
Movement of the body and all its joints
Body heat
Glycemic control
Venous blood return
Chemical energy (ATP) mechanical energy of motion
Skeletal muscle nomenclature
Shape (deltoid)
Size (gluteus Maximus)
Number of divisions (triceps)
Fiber direction (external oblique abdominal muscle
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