Class Notes (839,146)
United States (325,795)
History (123)
HST 101 (37)
Tom Wang (34)

03 - The Mediterranean and Middle East, 2000 - 500 B.C.E..doc

6 Pages

Course Code
HST 101
Tom Wang

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 6 pages of the document.
CHAPTER 4 The Mediterranean and Middle East, 2000–500 B C .E. I0. The Cosmopolitan Middle East, 1700–1100 B.CE. A0. Western Asia 10. In the southern portion of western Asia, the Kassites ruled Babylonia during this period. Babylonia did not pursue territorial conquest. In the north, the Assyrians had their origins in the northern Tigris area. They were involved in trade in tin and silver. 20. The Hittites had their capital in Anatolia, used horse-drawn chariots, and had access to important copper, silver, and iron deposits. 30. During the second millennium BC.E. Mesopotamian political and cultural concepts spread across much of western Asia. B0. New Kingdom Egypt 10. The New Kingdom period was preceded by the decline of the Middle Kingdom and by the subsequent period of rule by the non-Egyptian Hyksos. A native Egyptian dynasty overthrew the Hyksos to begin the New Kingdom period. This period was characterized by aggressive expansion into Syria-Palestine and into Nubia. 20. Innovations during the New Kingdom period include Queen Hatsheput’s attempt to open direct trade with Punt and Akhenaten’s construction of a new capital at Amarna. Akhenaten also made Aten the supreme deity of Egypt and carried out a controversial reform program. 30. The general Haremhab seized power in 1323 B C.E. and established a new dynasty, the Ramessides. The Ramessides renewed the policy of conquest and expansion neglected by Akhenaten and their greatest king, Ramesses II (r. 1290– 1224 B.C.E.), dominated his age. C0. Commerce and Communication 10. The Syria-Palestine area was an important crossroads for the trade in metals. For this reason, the Egyptians and the Hittites fought battles and negotiated territorial agreements concerning control over Syria-Palestine. 20. Access to metals was vital to all bronze-age states, but metals, including copper and tin for bronze, often had to be obtained from faraway places. The demand for metals spurred the development of trade in copper from Anatolia and Cyprus, tin from Afghanistan and Cornwall, silver from Anatolia, and gold from Nubia. 30. New modes of transportation introduced during this period included horses, chariots, and camels. II0. The Aegean World, 2000—1100 B C.E. A0. Minoan Crete 10. Minoan civilization is known through legendary accounts of King Minos, the labyrinth beneath his palace, and the Minotaur. Archaeological evidence for Minoan civilization includes excavated palace sites at Cnossus, Phaistos, and Mallia, and widely distributed remains of Cretan pottery and other artifacts. The evidence suggests that Minoan civilization was influenced by the civilizations of Egypt, Syria, and Mesopotamia. 20. Minoan civilization was destroyed, probably by Mycenaean Greeks, about 1450 B.CE. B0. Mycenaean Greece 10. The Mycenaean Greek people are thought to be descended from a combination of an indigenous population and Indo-European invaders. The civilization developed suddenly around 1600 B.C.E. 20. Although it was first known only through the accounts of The Iliad and The Odyssey, the existence of Mycenaean civilization was proved by the archeological expedition of Heinrich Schliemann in 1876 at Mycenae in southern Greece. Schliemann and other archeologists have discovered shaft graves, gold and silver jewelry, a palace complex, and other artifacts. 30. Later Greek legend explains the development of Mycenaean civilization as being the result of immigration from Phoenicia or liberation of the Greeks from Minoan tyranny. There is no archeological evidence to back up these legendary accounts. The evidence does, however, indicate that Mycenaean civilization was influenced by Minoan civilization and that the Mycenaeans rose to power on profits from trade and piracy. 40. Mycenaean sites share certain common characteristics including hilltop citadels with thick fortification walls that enclosed palaces and administrative buildings. Also typical of Mycenaean civilization were luxury-filled tombs for departed rulers, large houses for the aristocracy, and the use of Linear B writing. Linear B was an early form of Greek that used symbols to represent syllables. 50. The Mycenaean state controlled the economy, organizing grain agriculture and wool production. However, we know little about the Mycenaean political system, religion, society, or particular historical events. The uniformity that is characteristic of the Mycenaean territory may have been due to some sort of political unity, or it may have been the result of extensive contact and trade. 60. Evidence for long-distance contact and trade includes wall paintings of ships in Egypt and Thera and excavated remains of the ships themselves. Other evidence includes the widespread dispersal of Cretan and Mycenaean pottery and other goods around the Aegean world and in the Middle East. The evidence indicates that Cretan traders came first, and were later joined and then replaced by Mycenaeans. 70. In this trade, Crete and Greece exported wine or olive oil, weapons, craft goods, slaves, and mercenaries. They imported amber, ivory, grain, and metals (gold, copper, and tin). The fine line between trade and piracy can be seen in the strained relations between the Mycenaeans and the Hittites and in the siege of Troy. C0. The Fall of Late Bronze Age Civilizations 10. Destruction of Old Centers of Civilization in the Middle East 20. Unknown invaders destroyed the Hittite kingdom. Syria likewise fell to invasions. 30. The Egyptians battled invasions from the sea in the north and lost control of Nubia in the south. 40. Mycenaean civilization fell due to a combination of internal decline and external aggression. Annihilation of the trading routes of the eastern Mediterranean undermined the position of the Mycenaean elite and probably led to internal unrest and collapse. 50. The collapse of Mycenaean civilization demonstrates the degree to which the civilizations of the Late Bronze Age were interdependent; their prosperity and their very existence relied on the trade networks that linked them and gave them access to natural resources, particularly metals. When this cosmopolitan world collapsed, the Mediterranean and the Middle East entered a “Dark Age”—a period of poverty, isolation, and loss of knowledge. III0. The Assyrian Empire, 911–612 B.C.E. A0. Background and Location 10. The Assyrian homeland was in northern Mesopotamia. It had more rain and a more temperate climate than Sumer and Akkad, but it was also more exposed to raiders. 20. Assyrian power revived in the ninth century B.C.E. and the Assyrians built an empire, expanding along trade routes westward toward the Mediterranean, north to modern Armenia, east to modern Iran, and south to Babylonia. B0. God and King 10. Assyrian kings were regarded as the center of the universe, chosen by the gods as their surrogates in earth. Kings had secular and religious duties. 20. The secular duties of kings included receiving information, hearing and deciding on complaints, and carrying out diplomacy and military leadership. The religious duties of kings included supervision of the state religion, performance of public and private rituals, and consulting and gaining the approval of the gods. 30. Assyrian kings were celebrated in propaganda that was designed to produce feelings of awe and fear in the hearts of their subjects. Such propaganda included the public display of royal inscriptions relating to conquests and punishments and artistic renderings of the kings as large, muscular, and fierce men. C0. Conquest and Control 10. At their peak, the Assyrian armies had half a million troops divided into functionally specialized units. The Assyrian troops used a variety of military technologies, including iron weapons, cavalry, couriers, signal fires, and spy networks. 20. Assyrian techniques of conquest included terror tactics and mass deportation of civilian populations. Mass deportation served a dual purpose: to destroy the morale of the enemy and to transfer needed laborers to the core area of the empire. 30. The Assyrians found it difficult to control their vast and diverse territory. Their level of control varied, being more effective at the core and less effective in the peripheral parts of the empire. 40. Within the empire, the duties of Assyrian officials were to collect tribute and taxes, to maintain law and order, to raise and provision troops, and to construct and maintain public works. The central government included high-ranking officials and professionals. 50. The central government exploited the wealth and resources of the empire for the benefit of the center, but also invested in provincial infrastructure, and so was not entirely parasitic. D0. Assyrian Society and Culture 10. Assyrian society had three major social strata: free, land-owning citizens; farmers and artisans; and slaves. The Assyrian economy was based on agricultu
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.