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27 - The New Imperialism, 1869 - 1914.doc

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HST 101
Tom Wang

CHAPTER 28 The New Imperialism, 1869–1914 00CHAPTER OUTLINE I0. The New Imperialism: Motives and Methods A0. Introduction 10. The New Imperialism was a tremendous explosion of territorial conquest in which the imperial powers used economic and technological means to reorganize dependent regions and bring them into the world economy as suppliers of foodstuffs and raw materials and as consumers of industrial products. 20. In Africa and in other parts of the world this was done by conquest and colonial administration; in Latin America, the same result was attained by indirect means. B0. Political Motives 10. One political motive for imperialism was the desire to gain national prestige. 20. The actions of colonial governors also led to the acquisition of new colonial possessions. Colonial agents often sent troops to take over neighboring territories first and informed their home governments afterwards. C0. Cultural Motives 10. The late nineteenth century Christian revival in Europe and North America included a commitment to exporting Western “civilization” through Christian missionary activity. 20. Persons other than missionaries also believed that Europeans and Americans were morally and culturally superior and that their technological prowess was proof of this superiority. Some used racist ideas in order to justify this superiority and to relegate non- Europeans to a permanent state of inferiority. 30. Imperialism was attractive to young men who found opportunities for adventure and glory in the imperialist enterprise. By the 1890s, imperialism was a popular cause; it was the overseas extension of nationalism. D0. Economic Motives 10. The industrialization of Europe and North America stimulated a demand for minerals, industrial crops, and stimulants (sugar, coffee, tea, and tobacco). The economic depression of the mid-1870s to the mid-1890s gave the industrialized countries an incentive to seek control of the sources of raw materials and the markets for their industrial products. 20. Entrepreneurs and investors looked to profit from mines, plantations, and railroads in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. In order to minimize their risks, these entrepreneurs sought the diplomatic and military support of their governments. E0. The Tools of the Imperialists 10. The Industrial Revolution provided technological innovations that made it possible for Europeans and Americans to build the “New Imperialism.” 20. Steamships, the Suez Canal, and submarine cables gave European forces greater mobility and better communications than Africans, Asians, or Latin Americans. The discovery that quinine could be used to prevent malaria allowed Europeans to enter Africa in large numbers for the first time. 30. The invention of the breechloader, smokeless powder, and the machine gun widened the firearms gap and made colonial conquests easier than ever before. F0. Colonial Agents and Administration 10. Colonialism is the system of administering and exploiting colonies for the benefit of the home country. In applying modern scientific and industrial methods to their colonies, colonialists started the transformation of Asian and African societies that has continued to our day. 20. The forms of colonial administration varied with the social and economic conditions of the colonies. Some colonies were protectorates that retained their traditional governments, and some were administered directly. 30. Colonies were administered with the cooperation of indigenous elites. Colonial administrations used two different types of indigenous elites: traditional rulers and youths trained for “modern” jobs as clerks, nurses, policemen, customs inspectors and the like. 40. European and American women seldom took part in the early stages of colonial conquest. When they did arrive in the colonies, the presence of European and American women led to increased racial segregation. II0. The Scramble for Africa A0. Egypt 10. The Egyptian khedives carried out a number of expensive modernization projects in the mid-nineteenth century. These projects were financed with high-interest loans from European creditors. 20. French and British bankers lobbied their governments to intervene in Egypt in order to secure their loans. In 1882 the British sent an army into Egypt and established a system of indirect rule that lasted for seventy years. 30. The British worked to develop Egyptian agriculture, especially cotton production, by building a dam across the Nile at Aswan. The economic development of Egypt only benefited a small elite of landowners and merchants, and it was accompanied by the introduction of Western ways that conflicted with the teachings of Islam. B0. Western and Equatorial Africa 10. In West Africa, the French built a railroad from the upper Senegal River to the upper Niger in order to open the interior to French merchants. In the Congo Basin, King Leopold II of Belgium claimed the area south of the Congo River, while France claimed the area on the northern bank. 20. German chancellor Bismarck called the Berlin Conference on Africa in 1885 and 1886 in order to lay out the framework under which Africa would be occupied by the European nations. In practice, the division and occupation of Africa met with resistance and required many years of effort. 30. In West Africa, the new colonial powers took advantage of and developed the existing trade networks. In Equatorial Africa, where there were few inhabitants and little trade, the colonial powers granted concessions to private companies that forced Africans to produce cash crops and to carry them to the nearest navigable river or railroad. C0. Southern Africa 10. Southern Africa had long been attractive to European settlers because of its good pastures and farmland and its mineral wealth. The discovery of diamonds at Kimberley in 1868 attracted European prospectors and Africans; it also set off the process by which the British Cape Colony expanded, annexing Kimberley and defeating the Xhosa and the Zulu. 20. Cecil Rhodes used his British South Africa Company to take over land in central Africa, where he created the colonies of Southern Rhodesia and Northern Rhodesia. 30. British control over South Africa was consolidated when Britain defeated the Afrikaaners in the South African War (1899–1902). In 1910 the European settlers created the Union of South Africa, in which the Afrikaaners emerged as the ruling element in a government that assigned Africans to reservations and established a system of racial segregation. D0. Political and Social Consequences 10. Africa at the time of the European invasion contained a variety of societies. These societies responded differently to the European invasion; some welcomed the Europeans as allies against local enemies, while others resisted European rule. 20.
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