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25 - Africa, India, and the New British Empires, 1750 - 1870.doc

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HST 101
Tom Wang

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CHAPTER 26 Land Empires in the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1870 I0. The Ottoman Empire A0. Egypt and the Napoleonic Example, 1798–1840 10. In 1798, Napoleon invaded Egypt and defeated the Mamluk forces he encountered there. Fifteen months later, after a series of military defeats, Napoleon returned to France, seized power, and made himself emperor. 20. His generals had little hope of holding on to power and, in 1801, agreed to withdraw. Muhammad Ali emerged as the victor in the ensuing power struggle. 30. Muhammad Ali used many French practices in effort to build up the new Egyptian state. 40. He established schools to train modern military officers and built factories to supply his new army. 50. In the 1830s his son Ibrahim invaded Syria and started a similar set of reforms there. 60. European military pressure forced Muhammad Ali to withdraw in 1841 to the present day borders of Egypt and Israel. 70. Muhammad Ali remained Egypt's ruler until 1849 and his family held onto power until 1952. B0. Ottoman Reform and the European Model, 1807-1853 10. At the end of the eighteenth century Sultan Selim III introduced reforms to strengthen the military and the central government and to standardize taxation and land tenure. These reforms aroused the opposition of Janissaries, noblemen, and the ulama. 20. Tension between the Sultanate and the Janissaries sparked a Janissary revolt in Serbia in 1805. Serbian peasants helped to defeat the Janissary uprising and went on to make Serbia independent of the Ottoman Empire. 30. Selim suspended his reform program in 1806, too late to prevent a massive military uprising in Istanbul in which Selim was captured and executed before reform forces could retake the capital. 40. The Greeks gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1829. Britain, France, and Russia assisted the Greeks in their struggle for independence and regarded the Greek victory as a triumph of European civilization. 50. Sultan Mahmud II believed that the loss of Greece indicated a profound weakness in Ottoman military and financial organization. Mahmud used popular outrage over the loss of Greece to justify a series of reforms that included the creation of a new army corps, elimination of the Janissaries, and reduction of the political power of the religious elite. Mahmud’s secularizing reform program was further articulated in the Tanzimat (restructuring) reforms initiated by his successor Abdul Mejid in 1839. 60. Military cadets were sent to France and Germany for training, and reform of Ottoman military education became the model for general educational reforms in which foreign subjects were taught, foreign instructors were employed, and French became the preferred language in all advanced scientific and professional training. 70. Educational reform stimulated growth of the wealth and influence of urban elites. The reforms also brought about unexpected cultural and social effects that ranged from the introduction of European clothing styles to the equal access to the courts for all male subjects to equalization of taxation. 80. The public rights and political participation granted during the Tanzimat were explicitly restricted to men. The reforms decreased the influence of women, while at the same time the development of a cash economy and competitive labor market drove women from the work force. C0. The Crimean War and its Aftermath, 1853–1856 10. Russia’s southward expansion at the expense of the Ottoman Empire led to the Crimean War. An alliance of Britain, France and the Ottoman Empire defeated Russia and thus blocked Russian expansion into Eastern Europe and the Middle East. 20. The Crimean War brought significant changes to all combatants. The Russian government was further discredited and forced into making further reforms, Britain and France carried out extensive propaganda campaigns that emphasized their roles in the war, and the French press promoted a sense of unity between Turkish and French society. 30. The Crimean War marked the transition from traditional to modern warfare. The percussion caps and breech-loading rifles that were used in the Crimean War were the beginning of a series of subsequent changes in military technology that included the invention of machine guns, the use of railways to transfer weapons and men, and trench warfare. 40. After the Crimean War the Ottoman Empire continued to establish secular financial and commercial institutions on the European model. These reforms contributed to a shift of population from rural to urban areas and the development of professional and wage laborer classes, but they did not solve the regime’s fiscal problems. 50. Problems associated with the reforms included the Ottoman state’s dependence on foreign loans, a trade deficit, and inflation. In the 1860s and 1870s discussion of a law that would have permitted all men to vote left Muslims worried that the Ottoman Empire was no longer a Muslim society. This worry may have contributed to Muslim hostilities against Christians in the Ottoman territories in Europe, Armenia, and the Middle East. 60. The decline of Ottoman power and wealth inspired a group of educated urban men known as the Young Ottomans to band together to work for constitutionalism, liberal reform, and the creation of a Turkish national state in place of the Ottoman Empire. A constitution was granted in 1876, but a coup soon placed a more conservative ruler on the throne; the Ottoman Empire thus continued its weakened existence under the sponsorship of the Western powers until 1922. II0. The Russian Empire A0. Russia and Europe 10. In 1700, only three percent of the Russian population lived in cities and Russia was slow to acquire a modern infrastructure and modern forms of transportation.
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