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26 - The New Power Balance, 1850 - 1900.doc

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Department
History
Course
HST 101
Professor
Tom Wang
Semester
Spring

Description
CHAPTER 27 The New Power Balance, 1850–1900 00CHAPTER OUTLINE I0. New Technologies and the World Economy A.Railroads 10. By 1850 the first railroads had proved so successful that every industrializing country began to build railroad lines. Railroad building in Britain, France, Germany, Canada, Russia, Japan, and especially in the United States fueled a tremendous expansion in the world’s rail networks from 1850 to 1900. 20. In the non-industrialized world, railroads were also built wherever they would be of value to business or to government. 30. Railroads consumed huge amounts of land and timber for ties and bridges. Throughout the world, railroads opened new land to agriculture, mining, and other human exploitation of natural resources. B0. Steamships and Telegraph Cables 10. In the mid-nineteenth century a number of technological developments in shipbuilding made it possible to increase the average size and speed of ocean-going vessels. These developments included the use of iron (and then steel) for hulls, propellers, and more efficient engines. 20. Entrepreneurs developed a form of organization known as the shipping line in order to make the most efficient use of these large and expensive new ships. Shipping lines also used the growing system of submarine telegraph cables in order to coordinate the movements of their ships around the globe. C0. The Steel and Chemical Industries 10. Steel is an especially hard and elastic form of iron that could be made only in small quantities by skilled blacksmiths before the eighteenth century. A series of inventions in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries made it possible to produce large quantities of steel at low cost. 20. Until the late eighteenth century chemicals were also produced in small amounts in small workshops. The nineteenth century brought large-scale manufacture of chemicals and the invention of synthetic dyes and other new organic chemicals. 30. Nineteenth century advances in explosives (including Alfred Nobel’s invention of dynamite) had significant effects on both civil engineering and on the development of more powerful and more accurate firearms. 40. The complexity of industrial chemistry made it one of the first fields in which science and technology interacted on a daily basis. This development gave a great advantage to Germany, where government-funded research and cooperation between universities and industries made the German chemical and explosives industries the most advanced in the world by the end of the nineteenth century. D0. Electricity 10. In the 1870s inventors devised efficient generators that turned mechanical energy into electricity that could be used to power arc lamps, incandescent lamps, streetcars, subways, and electric motors for industry. 20. Electricity helped to alleviate the urban pollution caused by horse-drawn vehicles. Electricity also created a huge demand for copper, bringing Chile, Montana, and southern Africa more deeply into the world economy. E0. World Trade and Finance 10. Between 1850 and 1913 world trade expanded tenfold, while the cost of freight dropped between 50 and 95 percent so that even cheap and heavy products such as agricultural products, raw materials, and machinery were shipped around the world. 20. The growth of trade and close connections between the industrial economies of Western Europe and North America brought greater prosperity to these areas, but it also made them more vulnerable to swings in the business cycle. One of the main causes of this growing interdependence was the financial power of Great Britain. 30. Non-industrial areas were also tied to the world economy. The non-industrial areas were even more vulnerable to swings in the business cycle because they depended on the export of raw materials that could often be replaced by synthetics or for which the industrial nations could develop new sources of supply. Nevertheless, until World War I, the value of exports from the tropical countries generally remained high, and the size of their populations remained moderate. II0. Social Changes A0. Population and Migrations 10. Between 1850 and 1914 Europe saw very rapid population growth, while emigration from Europe spurred population growth in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Argentina. As a result, the proportion of people of European ancestry in the world’s population rose from one-fifth to one-third. 20. Reasons for the increase in European population include a drop in the death rate, improved crop yields, the provision of grain from newly opened agricultural land in North America, and the provision of a more abundant year-round diet as a result of canning and refrigeration. 30. Asians also migrated in large numbers during this period, often as indentured laborers. B0. Urbanization and Urban Environments 10. In the latter half of the nineteenth century European, North American, and Japanese cities grew tremendously both in terms of population and of size. In areas like the English Midlands, the German Ruhr, and around Tokyo Bay, towns fused into one another, creating new cities. 20. Urban growth was accompanied by changes in the character of urban life. Technologies that changed the quality of urban life for the rich (and later for the working class as well) included mass transportation networks, sewage and water supply systems, gas and electric lighting, police and fire departments, sanitation and garbage removal, building and health inspection, schools, parks, and other amenities. 30. New neighborhoods and cities were built (and older areas often rebuilt) on a rectangular grid pattern with broad boulevards and modern apartment buildings. Cities were divided into industrial, commercial, and residential zones, with the residential zones occupied by different social classes. 40. While urban environments improved in many ways, air quality worsened. Coal used as fuel polluted the air, while the waste of the thousands of horses that pulled carts and carriages lay stinking in the streets until horses were replaced by streetcars and automobiles in the early twentieth century. C0. Middle-Class Women's “Separate Sphere” 10. The term “Victorian Age” refers not only to the reign of Queen Victoria (r.1837–1901), but also to the rules of behavior and the ideology surrounding the family and relations between men and women. Men and women were thought to belong in “separate spheres,” the men in the workplace, the women in the home. 20. Before electrical appliances, a middle-class home demanded lots of work; the advent of modern technology in the nineteenth century eliminated some tasks and made others easier, but rising standards of cleanliness meant that technological advances did not translate into a decrease in the housewife’s total workload. 30. The most important duty of middle-class women was to raise their children. Victorian mothers lavished much time and attention on their children, but girls received an education very different from that of boys. 40. Governments enforced legal discrimination against women throughout the nineteenth century, and society frowned on careers for middle-class women. Women were excluded from jobs that required higher education; teaching was a permissible career, but women teachers were expected to resign when they got married. Some middle-class women were not satisfied with home life and became involved in volunteer work or in the women’s suffrage movement. D0. Working-Class Women 10. Working-class women led lives of toil and pain. Many became domestic servants, facing long hours, hard physical labor, and sexual abuse from their masters or their masters’ sons. 20. Many more young women worked in factories, where they were relegated to poorly paid work in the textiles and clothing trades. Married women were expected to stay home, raise children, do housework, and contribute to the family income by taking in boarders, doing sewing or other piecework jobs, or by washing other people’s clothes. III0. Socialism and Labor Movements A0. Marx and Socialism 10. Socialism began as an intellectual movement. The best-known socialist was Karl Marx (1818–1883) who, along with Friedrich Engles (1820–1895) wrote the Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867). 20. Marx saw history as a long series of clashes between social classes. 30. Marx's theories provided an intellectual framework for general dissatisfaction with unregulated industrial capitalism. 40. Marx took steps to translate his intellectual efforts into political action. B0. Labor Movements 10. Labor unions were organizations formed by industrial workers to defend their interests in negotiations with employers. Labor unions developed from the workers’ “friendly societies” of the early nineteenth century and sought better wages, improved working conditions, and insurance for workers. 20. During the nineteenth century workers were brought into electoral politics as the right to vote was extended to all adult males in Europe and North America. Instead of seeking the violent overthrow of the bourgeois class, socialists used their voting po
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