Tuesday, October 20
• Prenatal Stages
- Conception to birth
- Germinal Stage (0-2 weeks): Zygote - rapid cell division
- Placenta forms (eventually functions as a two way street)
- Embryonic Stage (2-8 weeks): Embryo
- Most vulnerable stage
- Characterized by the development of vital body organs, so the
most can go wrong here. Sensitive to drugs, alcohol (brain
abnormalities, underdeveloped heads), malnutrition, smoking
(underdeveloped fetus, low birth rate), sicknesses
- Once you get past it, usually means you will have the baby.
- Fetal Stage (8 weeks - birth): Fetus — bone and muscle development
- At 8 weeks, fetus is about the size of a kidney bean. Lots of growth
• The Importance of Contact: beforehand, they thought that food was the most
important thing the mother supplied, until they did this study:
- Harlow’s Monkeys: A monkey had one area with a source of warmth and
one area with food, and the monkey stayed with the warmth even at feeding time
- Babies’ chances of survival are doubled when they are touched
• Attachment (Bond) Development: bond formed with caretaker affects your
- Mary Ainsworth: Put babies in a ‘strange situation’ (unknown places are
strange to babies): had the major caretaker bring the baby into a waiting room
with toys in the middle of the room and a one-way mirror around it. Baby spotted
the toys, so do they explore the toys? Does the baby use the caretaker as a base
to go explore? Eventually had the caretaker leave the room. When they left, all
cried. In a couple minutes, caretaker was to go sit back down in the room. With
this experiment, she was able to come up with three major attachments:
1) Secure: More likely to go out and explore the environment. Can go back
to parent at any time. (ex. Going to party with friend instead of alone — meet
more people, might not even hang with friend, but comforted to know they’re
2) Anxious-ambivalent: The nervousness that they will leave, but the trust
that they will come back and the clinging when they do come back. Trust is gone
when they return.
1 Tuesday, October 20
3) Avoidant: Not visibly disturbed when the caretaker leaves, even though
they saw them leave. “You’ve left me before and not come back, I’ve learned to
deal with it and rely on myself. I will not trust you.”
- Question: Are the infant’s needs usually met?
YES —> Secure bond
NO —> Child reacts with FEAR (anxious-ambivalent, overly
dependent) or DEFENSIVENESS (avoidant, overly independent)
- Not always the parent’s fault. Infant temperament can form an insecure
bond even if all needs are met
* US: 63% have secure bond, others mostly avoidant
* Germany: 56% secure, 34% avoidant
* Japan: 68% secure, others almost all anxious-ambivalent
• Cognitive Development (Piaget)
- Piaget: Originally studied his own kids. Created the stages of
- Sensorimotor (0-2 years): Coordination of the sensory input and motor
- Object permanence: If you can’t see something anymore, it’s still
there. Eventually developed by the time they ﬁnish this stage.
- Scale errors: Cannot tell the difference between real-life sizes and
miniature models. Very common from babies and toddlers.
- T-Shirt Error: When they start to learn, they put their t-shirt on
backwards far more often than chance
- Preoperational (2-7 years): Developing symbolic thought
- Irreversibility: ex. What is 8 - 5? 3. What is 5 + 3? ????
- Centration: Can only concentrate on one thing at a time. Adults are
like this under the inﬂuence of alcohol. If you have a baggie and a
bottle of alcohol, you are more likely to only stuff one under your
- Egocentrism: Only being able to see from your own viewpoint. (ex.
hand teddy bear to sad person, “This will make you feel better.”
- Concrete Operations (7-11 years): Acquiring concrete mental
- Conservation: The difﬁculty realizing that just because the shape of
something changes does not mean the amount changes.
Overcome it at this stage.
- Hierarchical Classiﬁcation: No longer limited by centration.
Understand that there are categories and subcategories. Can hold
about 7 things in your working memory.
2 Tuesday, October 20
- Formal Operations (11-adolescence): Learning to think abstractly
- Abstract thinking: What is love? Who am I? Leads to…
- Systematic Thinking and Logic: Being able to think things through
and coming up with a solution ahead of time. (If/then)
Personality Development: Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Model
* Came up with this theory before they could test it. It is a personality
theory but always taught in developmental because it is a developmental
theory as well. Freud said that personality developed in the ﬁrst 5 years
are what you’re stuck with forever, but Erikson disagreed.
- Trust vs. Mistrust (1st year): Are my needs generally met?
- Erikson: will be stuck with this default for the rest of you life.
- Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt (2-3): Can I learn to do things by myself or
will I have to rely on others?
- (Autonomy: yes. Shame/doubt: no.)
- Initiative vs. Guilt (4-6): Am I good or am I bad?
- (If good, have conﬁdence to carry out things, or paralyzed by guilt
- Industry vs. Inferiority (6-puberty): Am I competent or am I worthless?
- (Largely learned at school.)
- Identity vs. Confusion (adolescent): Who am I? Where am I going in
- Intimacy vs. Isolation (early adult): Am I capable of meaningful
relationships or must I live in isolation?
- Does not mean intimacy — refers to bearing full self to another
- Generatively vs. Self Absorption (middle adulthood): Am I generating
something of worth with my life?
- Dealing with the fact that death is imminent (existential realization)
- If yes, carry sense of generatively with them
- If no, cannot remove selves from self-focus experienced earlier on
- Integrity vs. Despair (late adult): Have I lived a full life?
- If no, start gaining much more despair
3 Thursday, October 22
Development of Identity
• Marcia: You have to go through a crisis and come to a commitment in order
to come to an identity
- Punishment Orientation: Thinking that what is wrong is what is punished
and what is right is anything that is not punished. Mostly present in little kids
- Naïve Reward Orientation: What is wrong is still what is punished, but
what is right is what is rewarded
• Conventional Level
- Good boy/girl Orientation: Seeking approval from respected others.
Approval becomes more powerful than concrete rewards
- Authority Orientation: Laws of the society that you live in
- Most stop at this level.
• Postconventional Level
- Social Contract Orientation: Pausing and questioning the justice of laws
before following them
- Individual Principles & Conscience Orientation: What is right and wrong
regardless of society’s rules is equity and justice for all.
- ex. Hosting Jews during the World War or helping the Underground
Railroad (helping total strangers)
* Measuring Morality: What would you do in this scenario and why?
- ex. Stealing expensive drug for dying wife: right or wrong? If at a
conventional level, would say it’s wrong because it’s against the law.
- Trolley Problem: 5 people on track. Can ﬂip switch, but would kill one
man. Should you ﬂip the switch?
- Second scenario: Can either push guy into track or ﬂip switch. Most
would pick ﬂipping switch because you avoid human contact.
- Mass murderers vs. Serial killers: Mass murderers tend to use
guns, and serial killers tend to use their own hands
4 Thursday, October 22
Highlights of Adolescence
• Identity Crisis
- Necessary for development
- Crisis before you come to your own commitment (ex. disagreement with
• Suicide Attempts
- Myth that adolescents are at the highest risk for suicide. Actually at the
highest risk for suicide attempts.
- Elders are at the highest risk for suicide
Highlights of Early Adulthood
• New Trend of Later Marriage
- Getting education ﬁrst, then marriage
• Increase in Alternative Lifestyles
- Commitment without marriage (domestic partnership) — keeping the
gov’t out of it
• Four Parenting Styles
1) Authoritarian: Excessive control and not responsive to child’s
2) Indulgent-permissive: No or little control but highly responsive to child’s
3) Indifferent-uninvolved: No or little control and not responsive to child’s
4) Authoritative: High control and highly responsive to child’s needs
Highlights of Middle Adulthood
• Marital Happiness
- Worst when you have kids. When kids leave home and parents retire,
becomes higher than honeymoon phase.
• Kids = Happiness?
- For men, yes. Women, no.
• Midlife Crisis vs. Reﬂection
- Most just go through a reﬂection and then act upon it
• Empty Nest Syndrome vs. Adjustment
- Not a crisis, but a large adjustment. Can now focus on themselves again
5 Thursday, October 22
Highlights of Older Adulthood
• Gradual decline of active neurons (minor effect)
• Gradual decline in sensory sensitivity (easily corrected)
• Fluid intelligence decr