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PSY 101
Lynda Mae

PreCursor’s: Empiricism­ mind & data Philosophy­ why? Physiology­ how? Late 1800’s ­> start of psychology Wilhelm Wundt (Germany) G. Stanley Hall (America) ­> founded APA Wundt and Titchner: structuralism study of structure of consciousness Hall and James: functionalism study of functions of consciousness PHILOSOPHY WUNDT PHYSIOLOGY structuralism functionalism (Wundt and Titchner) (James and Hall) Behaviorism (Watson) (Gestalt) Psychoanalysis Humanistic PSY (Freud) (Rogers and Maslow) Evolutionary PSY Biological PSY Cognitive Revolution Mind/Body 1920s Methodological Revolution WWII (1938­1948) Applied Psychology Early 1970s Impact of Computer Cognitive Revolution Research Methods ● Qualitative­ explore ○ Qualitative Survey: when? how ­> using careful construction ○ Natural Observation: observe public behavior ­> observing not intervening ○ Case Study: to study unusual/infrequent phenomena ­> interviews, observation, limiting generalizability Quantitative Research: Descriptive­ to learn descriptive information about a group or event ○ records, surveys, interviews, observations ○ four main ways to present these numbers : mean (average), median (middle­use if extremes), mode (most frequent), percentages (use for categories) ○ 2, 10, 3, 10, 0 ­> 5, 3, 10, 40% Correlational­ to investigate possible relationships between two things ○ just measure both ○ relationship between aggressive tv and aggressive behavior ­> does aggressive tv cause aggressive children or do aggressive children choose to watch aggressive tv ○ positive (up, up), negative (up, down, vise versa), no relationship is close to zero ○ correlation between ­1 and 1 Experimental­ when you wish to draw cause and effect conclusions ○ manipulate a variable under controlled conditions ○ Independent Variables (IVs) ­ the one the experiment manipulates (or varies) ○ Dependant Variable (DVs) ­ the outcome thought to be affected by the IV ○ Experimental group ­ gets the IV ○ Control group ­ doesn’t ○ the IV causes the DV ○ Example: Higher education leads to higher income ­> independent: higher education, dependent: income ○ Bad weather contributes to depression ­> independent: weather, dependent: depression ○ Relaxation can be heightened with biofeedback ­> independent: biofeedback, dependent: relaxation Psychological Development Erikson’s Psychosocial (development of social skills) Model ● Trust vs Mistrust (1st year) ● Autonomy vs Shame/Doubt (2­3) ● Initiative vs Guilt (4­6) ● Industry vs Inferiority (6­puberty) ● Identity vs Confusion (adolescence) ● Intimacy vs Isolation (early adult) ● Generativity vs Self Absorption (mid) ● Integrity vs Despair (late adult)  → has my life been fulfilling Development of Identity ● Marcia ○ crisis ○ commitment ● No crisis/No commitment: identity diffusion ● No crisis/Yes commitment: identity moratorium ● Yes crisis/No commitment: identity foreclosure ● Yes crisis/ Yes commitment: identity achievement Moral Development ● Kohlberg ● Preconventional Level ○ punishment orientation ○ naive reward orientation ● Conventional Level ○ good boy/girl orientation ○ authority orientation ● Postconventional Level ○ social contract orientation ○ individual principles and conscience orientation Early Adulthood ● new trend of later marriage ● increase in alternative lifestyles ● four parenting styles ○ authoritarian (excessive control, not enough response) ○ indulgent­permissive (not enough control, but responsive) ○ indifferent­uninvolved (not enough control or responsiveness) ○ authoritative (appropriate control, responsive) ● children with assertive parents tends to be independent,socially aware, assertive and friendly Middle Adulthood ● marital happiness ● midlife crisis vs reflection ● empty nest syndrome vs adjustment Older Adulthood ● gradual decline of active neurons ­ minor effect ● gradual decline in sensory sensitivity ­ easily corrected ● fluid intelligence decreases; crystallized stable ● new activities/identities associated with life satisfaction ● interaction of physical, social, and cognitive health Kubler­Ross’ Stages of Grieving/Dying:  (5) ● denial ● anger ● bargaining (trying to find a way out) ● depression (giving up on fighting it) ● acceptance (finding a way to move forward) ● 2 added later ○ shock (very beginning) ○ testing (before or after bargaining) ● Progression ○ sticking ○ cycling The Psychology of Memory 3 Processes of Memory: ● encoding ○ 3 Forms of Encoding (in order of increasing superiority) ■ phonetic ■ structural (physical, superficial characteristics) ■ semantic (processing words or concepts by what they mean) ● storage (ability to save information in brain) ○ 3 Types of Storage (in order of increasing storage time) ■ sensory memory: limited by attention (few seconds) ■ working memory: limited, magic 7 (20 seconds) ■ long­term memory: unlimited ● retrieval (ability to retrieve from storage) ● Serial Effects ○ primacy effects (tend to last longer) ○ recency effects Memory Over the Lifespan ● infantile amnesia (children can remember things short term, able to verbalize) ● peak (memory tends to peak around 25) ● post­peak correlations ● reminiscence bump (have the best memory for things that happen in twenties) Theories of Forgetting ● decay ● interference (about the same as amnesia, proactive, retroactive) ● repression 3 Causes of False Memory ● schemas ● repeated assertions ● heavy marijuana use State­Dependency of Retrieval ● mood ● level of consciousness ● context 3 Memory Tricks ● mnemonic device (like roygbiv) ● chunking (198756890 vs 198 756 890 → break down) ● spacing (at least over a couple of night) ● most effective memory strategy: two­step active studying (testing (flashcards) → feedback) 7 Deadly Memory Bloopers ● absent mindedness ● transience ● blocking ● misattribution ● suggestibility ● bias ● persistence Flashbulb Memories: associated with disasters, highly detailed, easy to recall, not very accurate → could turn into post­traumatic stress disorder Memory Disorder ● known organic causes (traumatic brain injury, brain deficiency) ● dissociative ○ amnesias & fugues ○ dementias ○ DID: dissociative identity disorder Medication for Memory Loss: limited to age­related memory loss, only helps some/side effects Movie Memories: memento, fifty first dates: anterograde amnesia the notebook: alzheimer’s disease Why might you include more than one dependent variable in your experiment? ­To see what could be affected Why might you include more than one independent variable in your experiment? ­To look for possible interactions In order to be a true experiments: you must be able to manipulate the independent variable while controlling everything else and randomly assign participants into groups Experiments: cause, lead to, result in, effects, reduces, increases, etc. Correlational Research: relationships, related, linked, associated… Descriptive Research: describe, demographics, composition… Qualitative Survey: opinions, attitudes Natural Observation: public behavior Case Study: unusual of frequent phenomena Significance Testing of Comparative Data: consensus must be met less than 5% is just due to chance compare 2 or more group means significantly different or just due to chance P­value: group means group variability n (number of subjects per group) N (total number of subjects in experiment) *if p­value  10% = not significant *marginally significant means withhold judgement and collect more data Franz Gall: Phrenology­ study o
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